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Imperialism

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144 Terms

1

Imperialism

The take-over of a country or region by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the political, social, and economic lives of the people living there

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2

Internal Factors (use of things inside of Africa to colonize them)

1 Slave trade = fighting amongst african kingdoms

2 Weakening historically strong empires

3 No strong centralized governments

4 Ethnic divisions rivalry (allows for european Tactic of Divide And Conquer)

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3

External Factors (factors the colonizers used to colonize Africa)

1 Economic and technological advantages (steam engines, quinine, telegraph, etc.)

2 Wealth and power (larger militaries)

3 Organized and powerful governments

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4

King Leopold

King of Belgium who began imperialistic trade inside of Africa which resulted in the Scramble for Africa.

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5

Stanley and Livingstone

Charted the interior of Africa and published amazing stories that created an interest in Africa & created the scramble for Africa

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6

Social Darwinism

The idea that certain people become powerful in society because they are innately better. The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.

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7

Berlin Conference

A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa

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8

Berlin Conference (1884-1885)

Started the imperialism age

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9

Berlin Conference effects

White people arguing to take control of diff. Parts of africa

Goal was to not argue and evenly distribute France, Britain, Portugal, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Italy took control

France and England has the biggest control over africa

Liberia and Ethiopia were not colonized

Ethiopia was mountainous so it was hard to take control over

Liberia was already colonized before the age of imperialism

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10

Menelik II

Emperor of Ethiopia who played Italians, British, and French against each other while buying weapons from France and Russia. In the Battle of Adowa, Ethiopian forces successfully defeated the Italians and maintained their independence.

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11

Colony Imperialism

a country or territory governed internally by a foreign power

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12

Protectorate Imperialism

A country or territory with its own internal government but under the control of an outside power

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13

The French used DIRECT rule and sent officials and soldiers from France to administer their colonies

1 French went away with any system that was currently flowing - created economic systems that existed in France (turned colonized people into french citizens: language, food, etc.)

2 Social darwinism, paternalism

3 Simulation - turn indigenous people and force them into french culture (christianity)

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14

The British used INDIRECT rule. A British governor, and council of advisers made laws for each colony. Local rulers loyal to the governor retained some authority and served as agents for the British.

1 Establish colony in a country - ruler through indirect rulers

2 Colonizing country would send some british colonizers to set up govt., but much of daily govt. was 3 set up by colonized as long as they followed most of british rule and living according to their law

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15

Paternalism

(n.) the policy or practice of treating or governing people in the manner of a parent dealing with their children

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16

Assimilation

the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another

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17

Divide and Conquer

a problem-solving strategy in which a problem is broken down into sub-problems, until simple subproblems are reached.

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18

British Nigeria

One of the most culturally diverse areas in Africa, about 250 ethnic groups lived there. Home to a profitable palm oil trade. Some local rulers signed treaties with Britain and accepted British residents and officials. Others opposed their presence and the British used military force to put down the rebellions

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19

colonial rule

The practice of a wealthy or powerful nation's maintaining or extending its control over other countries, especially in establishing settlements or exploiting resources.

= direct and indirect rule

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20

Kashmir Conflict

The Kashmir Conflict is the ongoing debate of wether Kashmir belongs to Pakistan, India or should be independant.

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21

Hinduism

A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms

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22

Hindu beliefs

nonviolence, reincarnation, polytheism, karma, caste system, vedic priest

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23

Islam

A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Paradise and Hell, and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.

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24

Islam beliefs

monotheism, quran, and their 5 pillars

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25

Sikhism

the doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam

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26

Sikhism beliefs

*There is only one God. He is the same God for all people of all religions.

*The soul goes through cycles before reaching human form.

*The goal of life is to merge with God, so one should live rightly, balancing spiritual and temporal obligations.

*The true path to merging with God does not require celibacy, but a normal life of a householder avoiding sin.

*Sikhism condemns blind rituals such as fasting, pilgrimage, superstition, worship of the dead or idols.

*Sikhism preaches that people of all races, religions, and sexes are equal in God's eyes.

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27

British East India Company

A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.

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28

Sepoys

Indian troops who served in the British army

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29

Sepoy Rebellion (1857)

Revolt of Indian soldiers against the British; caused by a military practice in violation of the Muslim and Hindu faiths

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30

Viceroy

a governor who ruled as a representative of a monarch

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31

Separate Electorates

In India, this electoral law created separate voter rolls for people belonging to different religions.

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32

Amritsar Massacre

killing by British troops of nearly 400 Indians gathered at Amritsar to protest the Rowlatt Acts

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33

Congress Party

A major national political party in India - also known as the Indian National Congress.

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34

The Muslim League

an organization formed in 1906 to protect the interests of India's Muslims, which later proposed that India be divided into separate Muslim and Hindu nations

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35

Indian Nationalists

People who wanted reform from the British ways. They were looking for independence from British rule.

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36

Mohandes Gandhi

led India's independence movement, proponent of "civil disobedience", called on Indians to boycott British goods, not pay taxes and not vote

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37

Satyagraha

the form of nonviolent resistance initiated in India by Mahatma Gandhi in order to oppose British rule and to hasten political reforms

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38

Swaraj

"self rule" Gandhi's message to people of India about self-rule.

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39

Cloth Boycott

Gandhi implored Indians to stop purchasing British cloth and instead spin their own as a symbol of Indian independence

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40

Salt March

passive resistance campaign of Mohandas Gandhi where many Indians protested the British tax on salt by marching to the sea to make their own salt.

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41

Mohammad Ali Jinnah

the leader of the Muslim League who worked with Gandhi for independence

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42

The Partition Plan

Started by the UN to make western Palestine into a Jewish and Arab state. (Splitting up Palestine)

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43

Jawaharlal Nehru

Indian statesman. He succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as leader of the Indian National Congress. He negotiated the end of British colonial rule in India and became India's first prime minister (1947-1964).

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44

Genocide

Widespread murder and other acts committed by governments with the intent to destroy a national, racial, religious, or ethnic group.

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45

Myanmar & The Rohingya

between Myanmar Buddhist government and rohingya minority group (Muslims). Myanmar gov. persecuted Rohingya, they fled to Bangladesh but it is ill equipped and poverty-stricken. (ethnic cleansing)

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46

The Armenian Genocide

the Turkish government organized the department of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire and over a million were murdered or starved - one of the first genocides of the 20th centuries

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47

Turkey's current response to the Armenian genocide

refuse to recognize this as a genocide

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48

Who is Raphael Lemkin and what is "The Crime Without a Name"?

Polish anti-genocide crusader, pushed for a law prohibiting genocide to be passed (it did not have a name before him), first used to recognize the Rwandan Genocide kk

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49

The Holocaust="Turning Point" in World's approach to Genocide

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50

The United Nations

An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.

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51

The Genocide Convention

treaty that made genocide a crime and obligated its signers to prevent, suppress, and punish genocide

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52

The International Criminal Court (ICC)

A court established by international treaty for indicting and administering justice to people committing war crimes.

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53

The Cambodian Genocide

1975-1979 attempt to form Communist peasant farming society resulted in deaths by starvation, overwork, and executions.

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54

The Khmir Rouge

Joined forces with Cambodian Military to transform Cambodia into a Communist society and caused genocide in the process

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55

Autogenocide

a group's killing of its own people.

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56

The Bosnian Genocide

Very divided, high ethnic tensions. Serbia set out to "ethnically cleanse" Bosnian territory by systematically killing people.

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57

Slobodan Milosevic

Serbian leader who initiated a policy of ethnic cleansing against Bosnian Muslims

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58

The Rwandan Genocide

The killing of more than 500,000 ethnic Tutsis by rival Hutu militias in Rwanda. U.N. peacekeepers did not enter the country until after much of the damage had been done.

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59

Hutus

the group that forms the majority in Rwanda and Burundi, massacred the Tutsis

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60

Tutsis

Minority group in Rwanda; Massacred by Hutus.

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61

Genocide in Sudan

Under colonial rule for a while, gained independence, civil war, 2.5 million displaced, split into north and south Sudan, not much international response

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62

Darfur

a region in western Sudan where ethnic conflict threatened to lead to genocide

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63

The Lost Boys

the children displaced because of the Sudanese genocide

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64

Mesopotamia

"land between the rivers"

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65

Sumer

The world's first civilization, founded in Mesopotamia, which existed for over 3,000 years.

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66

Ziggurat

massive pyramidal stepped tower made of mud bricks. It is associated with religious complexes in ancient Mesopotamian cities.

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67

Theocracy

A government controlled by religious leaders

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68

Cuneiform

A form of writing developed by the Sumerians using a wedge shaped stylus and clay tablets.

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69

Gilgamesh

A legendary Sumerian king who was the hero of an epic collection of mythic stories

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70

Hammurabi's Code

first written code/set of laws that all were expected to obey.

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71

Diaspora

the dispersion of the Jews outside Israel

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72

Babylonian Captivity

50-year period in which the Israelites were exiled from Judah and held in Babylon. Believed to be the period when the Hebrew Bible was first written down.

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73

Library of Nineveh

contained over 20,000 organized tablets; Oldest surviving version of Gilgamesh found here - Assyrian

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74

Monotheism

Belief in one God

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75

Nebuchadnezzar

A Babylonian king who conquered Jerusalem,and built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon

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76

Covenant

A solemn agreement between human beings or between God and a human being in which mutual commitments are made. Abraham's gives birth to Judaism.

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77

Abraham

Founder of all three Semitic religions, receives message from god - goes to canaan, first monothiest, first Hebrew Patriarch

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78

Patriarch

the male head of a family or tribe

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79

Moses

The Hebrew prophet who led the Israelites from Egypt across the Red sea on a journey known as the Exodus; Also received the 10 Commandments.

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80

Saul

First king of Israel; Unifies the Israelites

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81

David

Second king of Israel; Established Jerusalem as center of Kingdom of Israel.

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82

Solomon

Third great king of Israel; Built the Temple in Jerusalem.

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83

Semitic Religions

Judaism, Christianity, Islam

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84

Canaan

An ancient name for the land of Israel

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85

Messiah

Savior sent by God

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86

The Trinity

The belief that God, although one, is three Divine Persons: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

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87

Jesus

Founder of Christianity

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88

Muhammad

Founder of Islam, allah's prophet

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89

Parable

A simple story used to illustrate a moral or spiritual lesson

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90

Disciple

A follower of Jesus

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91

Paul

Follower of Jesus who helped spread Christianity throughout the Roman world.

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92

Allah

Arabic for God

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93

Mecca

City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.

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94

Medina

City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca.

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95

Hijrah

Muhammad's move to Medina. Start of the Islamic calendar (622 CE)

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96

Isaac

Son of Abraham and Sarah

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97

Ishmael

Son of Abraham and Hagar

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98

The Ka'aba

A black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and is the most sacred Islamic pilgrimage site.

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99

The Hajj

A pilgrimage to Mecca, performed as a duty by Muslims

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100

The Five Pillars

beliefs that all Muslims needed to carry out: Faith, Prayer, Alms, Fasting, and Pilgrimage

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