Chapter 29-30: Wilsonian Progressivism in Peace & War, and The War to End All War (1913-1920)

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Woodrow Wilson

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Woodrow Wilson

28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), and won the Nobel Peace Prize. First Southerner elected president since Zachary Taylor in 1848 and the only former subject of the Confederacy. A fine orator, sincere and morally appealing politician, a very intelligent man, and felt the president should lead and addressed Congress directly. IDEALISTIC. When convinced he was right, Wilson would break before he would bend. Supported several acts for living wages and better conditions, and reducing child labor.

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Triple Wall of Privilege

The banks, trusts, and tariffs that Wilson pledged to topple were collectively known as this

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Underwood Tariff Act of 1913

This Act re-imposed the federal income tax following the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment and lowered basic tariff rates from 40% to 25%. It was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson. It substantially reduced import fees, was a landmark in tax legislation; graduated income tax, on incomes over $3K.

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Federal Reserve Act of 1913

This act created a central banking system, consisting of twelve regional banks governed by the Federal Reserve Board. It was an attempt to provide the United States with a sound yet flexible "ELASTIC" currency. The Board it created still plays a vital role in the American economy today.

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Federal Reserve Board

A system that is appointed by president; nationwide system of 12 regional reserve districts, with each having its OWN central bank. Was actually bankers' banks, but guaranteed large measure of public control.

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Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914

A banner accomplishment of Woodrow Wilson's administration, this law empowered a standing, presidentially appointed commission to investigate illegal business practices in interstate commerce like unlawful competition, false advertising, mislabeling of goods, adulteration, and bribery.

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Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914

This act added to the Sherman Anti-Trust Act's list of objectionable trust practices by forbidding price discrimination, and interlocking directorates, meaning the same people serving on "competitors" boards of trustees. It also exempted labor unions from being considered trusts and legalized strikes as a form of peaceful assembly. Ultimately helped cut down on monopolies. Turned on a searchlight on industries that were engaged in interstate commerce, like meatpacking. Long benefits, for labor. Conservative courts declared that trade unions would fall under the antimonopoly restraints, of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.

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Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916

Act/congressional measure, coming from a Populist idea, made credit available to farmers at low rates of interest.

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Warehouse Act of 1916

This act, coming from a Populist idea, authorized loans on the security of staple crops.

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Louis Brandeis

A Progressive-style lawyer called "the people's lawyer," and fought for public causes. When nominated to the Supreme Court by Woodrow Wilson in 1916, his appointment drew outrage as his "radical" behavior and anti-Semitism as he was the first Jew on the Supreme Court.

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Wilson's Foreign Policy

Wilson did not pursue aggressive foreign policy like the other presidents. He pulled the U.S. out of dollar diplomacy, persuaded congress to repeal the Panama Canal Tolls Act of 1912 (American shippers did not have to pay), and even lead bankers from pulling out of a six nation Taft engineered loan in China.

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Jones Act of 1916

Law according territorial status to the Philippines and promising independence as soon as a "stable government" could be established. The United States did not grant the Philippines independence until July 4, 1946. Why? The Empire of Japan occupied the Philippines (1942-1945), so we were not able to grant independence. We also had trouble before anyway, such as the Great Depression, Pearl Harbor, and deal with WWII in Europe

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United States occupation of Haiti (1915-1934)

A 19-year-long American military presence in Haiti that began in 1915 when 330 U.S. Marines landed on the authority of President Woodrow Wilson after the murder of dictator President Vilbrun Guillaume Sam by insurgents. The military occupation ended in 1934 after President Franklin Roosevelt signed a disengagement agreements. Haiti benefited very little from the U.S. occupation. The infrastructure accomplishments fell into disrepair, Haitian politics reverted back to the spoils system, and the occupation failed to establish Haiti as an economic and political world power.

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United States occupation of the Dominican Republic (1916-1924)

U.S. military occupation that lasted from 1916 to 1924. It was one of the many interventions in Latin America undertaken during the 20th century and beginning in the Woodrow Wilson administration. It began after Secretary of War Desiderio Arias seized power from president Juan Pereyra. The occupation failed to create a democratic state. Occupied because of fear of Germany using it as a base in WWI.

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Mexican Revolution (1910-1920)

The most profound social movement in Latin American history; was extremely complex, a Mexican rebellion of middle and lower classes against a deeply entrenched old order and the foreigners who dominated the nation's economy, followed by an extended civil war. This led to a massive immigration of Mexicans to America, mostly to the Southwest, reflecting Native American vs. the Mestizo (Mixed Spaniard and Native) friction.

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Victorian Huerta

General in the Mexican Federal Army and 39th President of Mexico, who came to power by coup against the democratically elected government of Francisco I. Madero with the aid of other Mexican generals and the U.S. Ambassador to Mexico. His violent seizure of power set off a new wave of armed conflict in the Mexican Revolution. Woodrow Wilson intervened in a Mexican civil war by refusing to recognize this dictator's government and by funneling military assistance to his rivals

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Venustiano Carranza and Francisco "Pancho" Villa

The rivals of Dictator Huerta, Wilson allowed American arms to go to them and would not recognize Huerta's regime.

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Tampico Affair (April 9, 1914)

Minor then major incident between Huerta's Mexico and the United States. 2 sailors had come ashore to secure supplies and were detained by Mexican forces. Commanding Admiral Henry Mayo demanded that the U.S. sailors be released, Mexico issue an apology, and raise and salute the U.S. flag along with a 21 gun salute. Mexico refused the demand. U.S. President Woodrow Wilson backed the admiral's demand. Mexicans of all factions of the Mexican Revolution united against the U.S. demands.

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Vera Cruz

Mexican port that Wilson commanded the navy to capture before Congress could respond to his asking them permission to use force against Mexico. Huerta and Carranza both opposed this action.

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Santa Ysabel

Location in Mexico where Pancho Villa's forces killed 18 US citizens in cold blood, causing a culminating outrage in March 1916 when his supporters shot up Columbus and New Mexico.

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Columbus Raid (1916)

A raid conducted by remnants of Pancho Villa's Division of the North on the small United States border town of Columbus, New Mexico, located 3 miles (4.8 km) north of the border with Mexico. Villa killed 19 Americans, wanting instability. The raid escalated into a full-scale battle between Villistas and the United States Army.

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John J. Pershing

Commander of American Expeditionary Force of over 1 million troops who insisted his soldiers fight as independent units so US would have independent role in shaping the peace. Chased Villa deep into Mexico, clashed with Carranza's and Villa's different forces, but didn't take Villa. Had to withdraw because of World War I.

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World War I (1914-1918)

Global conflict from 1914 to 1918. It was fought between two coalitions: the Allied Powers and the Central Powers. Fighting took place throughout Europe, the Middle East, Africa, the Pacific, and parts of Asia. 1 of the deadliest wars in history, it resulted in an estimated 9 million soldiers dead and 23 million wounded, plus another 5 million civilian deaths from various causes. Millions more died as a result of genocide (Armenia)

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What did the U.S. do when World War I broke out?

President Wilson will issue a neutrality proclamation, which was criticized by the European nations. As Germany looked to its people living in America in support, they did not really get any, mainly because German-Americans were more loyal to the U.S. and rising anti-German sentiment.

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Kaiser Wilhelm II

The leader of the German Empire at the time of the First World War reigning from 1888-1918. He pushed for a more aggressive foreign policy by means of colonies and a strong navy to compete with Britain. His actions added to the growing tensions in pre-1914 Europe.

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What was the American industry like before the First World War?

Industry was going into a recession and decline. until British and French war orders soon pulled American industry out of the morass of hard times and onto a peak of war-born prosperity.

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How was American trade during WWI?

We had "freedom of the seas," meaning we could trade with either the Allies or Central Powers, but German trade was limited because of the British blockade. An excuse to not trade with them.

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Strict accountability

Wilson's strongly worded message to Germany warning that they would be held to this if they continued unrestricted warfare.

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Lusitania (1915)

British passenger liner that was sunk by German U-boat submarines and helped bring the United States closer to involvement in WWI. 1198 lives lost, including 128 Americans. As it contained arms and munitions, the Germans used this to justify the sinking; MASS MURDER according to Americans.

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Sinking of the Arabic (August 1915)

Second ship sunk by the German Empire, killing two Americans and other passengers, Germany finally agreed not to sink unarmed ships without warning.

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Sinking of the Sussex (March 1916)

Event where a U.S. merchant ship Sussex was sunk by a torpedo which leads to the Sussex Pledge by the Germans, agreeing not to sink passenger or merchant vessels without warning, as long as the US got the British to stop their blockade.

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Election of 1916

Wilson ran for reelection for the Democrats on the call that he had kept the United States out of the war. Charles Evans Hughes was the Republican candidate who attacked the inefficiency of the Democratic Party. Wilson won the election, so was able to continue his idealistic policies. He barely beat Hughes (277 to 254), with the final result dependent on California

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Charles Evans Hughes

A reformist Republican governor of New York, who had gained fame as an investigator of malpractices by gas and insurance companies and by the coal trust. Was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court He later ran against Wilson in the 1916 election. Made different pledges depending on where he was, leading to being called "Evasive."

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"Peace Without Victory" Speech (January 22, 1917)

President Wilson's call to the fighting nations that neither side would impose harsh terms on the others. Wilson hoped that all nations would join a "league for peace". Broke diplomatic ties with Germany, who would now be engaging in unrestricted warfare, which meant that U-boats would be firing on armed and unarmed ships in the war zone.

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Zimmerman Telegram (1917)

This was a secret diplomatic communication issued from the German Foreign Office in January of 1917 that proposed an alliance between Germany and, America's friendly neighbor, Mexico. Written by German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman, it secretly proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico. If the Central Powers won, Mexico could recover land lost in the Mexican-American War 69 years ago (1848).

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April 6, 1917

Congress declares war on the Central Powers, therefore entering the First World War.

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37

Russian Revolution

The revolution against the Czar, which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in March 1917. Prompted by labor unrest, personal liberties, and elected representatives, this political revolution occurred in 1917 when Czar Nicholas II was murdered and Vladimir Lenin sought control to implement his ideas of socialism. Bolsheviks seized control. Exited World War I with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1917 or 1918)

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War to end all wars

The idea that WWI would, with all its destruction & devastation, end warfare. Wilson suggested it would "make the world safe for democracy."

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Fourteen Points Address

An address given by President Wilson to Congress for peace proposal- consisted of: No more secret treaties, maintain freedom of seas, removal of economic barriers among nations, reduction of armaments, adjustment of colonial claims in interests of natives & colonizers, "self-determination", and the 14th point, LEAGUE OF NATIONS

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League of Nations

A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946, and it integrated into the United Nations.

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Committee on Public Information

Headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people's minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel's organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees. He proved that words were indeed weapons. Aimed to sell America on the war and sell the world on Wilsonian ideals.

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Espionage Act/Sedition Act 1917-1918

Severely curtailed the civil liberties of Americans during wartime and greatly increased the power of the federal government in controlling public activity. The Sedition Act was repealed by Congress in 1921. Why? German aggression in World War I led to high anti-German sentiment in America. Persecution, harassment, accusation of espionage

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Schenck v. United States (1919)

A legal case in which it was ruled that government can limit free speech if the speech provokes a "clear and present danger" of substantive evils. This upheld the constitutionality of the Espionage Act of 1917.

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Industrial Workers of the World

Founded in 1905, this radical union, also known as the Wobblies aimed to unite the American working class into one union to promote labor's interests. It worked to organize unskilled and foreign-born laborers, advocated social revolution, and led several major strikes. Stressed solidarity.

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Was America really prepared for WWI?

No. America was unprepared for war. The army was only the 15th largest in the world. In trying to mobilize for war, no one knew how much America could produce, and traditional laissez-faire economics still provided resistance to government control of the economy.

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War Industries Board

Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries. had little power and was eliminated after the war. Set a precedent for federal control (a central role in economic planning). Mobilization relied more on passion/emotion than laws.

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Food Administration

This government agency was headed by Herbert Hoover and was established to increase the production of food and ration food for the military.

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Fuel Administration

Government agency created during the war to regulate the use of coal for the war effort.

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National War Labor Board

This board was a composition of representatives from business and labor designed to arbitrate disputes between workers and employers. It settled any possible labor difficulties that might hamper the war efforts.

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Labor during the war

There was little tolerance for Labor unrest. The leadership of the radical IWW was imprisoned. Arrests also broke the back of the Socialist Party. The AFL promised no strikes during the war. Inflation threatened to eclipse wage gains, and over 6000 strikes broke out during the war. There was no right to organize. Anger. Blacks immigrated to the North to find jobs, but their appearance in formerly all-White towns did spark violence (. Blacks were also often brought in as strikebreakers. MIGRATION

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East St. Louis Massacre (1917)

Series of violent attacks on African-Americans by white Americans in East St. Louis, Illinois between late May and early July of 1917. These attacks also displaced 6,000 African Americans and led to the destruction of approximately $400,000 worth of property.

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Chicago Riot of 1919

Competition over jobs, existed between whites and blacks at the end of WWI. Whites angry at blacks for taking their jobs. Riot lasted 6 days. 15 whites and 23 blacks killed. 500 injured, 3000 left homeless by arsonists.

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19th Amendment to the United States Constitution (1920)

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation

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Women's Bureau

This federal organization was established in 1920, it was founded to provided data on women to congress and advocate for protective labor legislation and better working conditions. This was first headed by Mary Anderson who helped write the idea into federal law with the 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act. This organization still exists as a department within the US Department of Labor and still studies and advocates for women today focusing on equal pay, job flexibility, higher paying jobs for women employment for homeless veterans.

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Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act of 1921

This act was designed to appeal to new women voters, this act provided federally financed instruction in maternal and infant health care and expanded the role of government in family welfare.

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Making Plowboys into Doughboys

Although President Wilson initially opposed a draft, he eventually realized that a draft was necessary to raise the large army that was to be sent to France. Congress passed the draft act in 1917. It required the registration of all males between the ages of 18 and 45, and it did not allow for a man to purchase his exemption from the draft. For the first time, women were allowed in the armed forces. European Allies confessed to the U.S. that they were running out of money to pay for loans from America and they were also running out of men.

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Western Front of WWI

Trench warfare, small land gains, and ended in a bloody stalemate. Germany vs. UK, France, and later the United States.

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Battle of Chateau-Thierry (1918)

The first significant engagement of American troops in WWI - and indeed, in any European war. To weary French soldiers, the American doughboys were an image of fresh and gleaming youth.

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Armistice of 11 November 1918

A fighting truce arranged between the Allies and the Central Powers, to go into effect at 11AM on 11 November, 1918

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Congressional Elections of 1918

The 66th Congress, under President Wilson. He begged people to elect Democrats so that they could support his foreign policy initiatives in Congress, but the public rejected him. The senate had 47 Democrats and 49 Republicans and the House had 216 Democrats, 210 Republicans and 6 others.

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Paris Conference (1919)

The Big Four—Italy (Premier Vittorio Orlando), France (Premier Georges Clemenceau), Britain (Prime Minister David Lloyd George), and the U.S., led by Wilson, dictated the terms of the treaty. Wilson got colonies of the losers put into the hands of his dream, the League of Nations. They were given to countries of the League, which would be trustees (Syria, for example, was awarded to France, and oil-rich Iraq went to Britain). COLONIALISM IN DISGUISE

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Treaty of Versailles (1919)

Treaty that ended World War I; it was much harder on Germany than Wilson wanted but not as punitive as France and the United Kingdom desired. It was harsh enough, however, to set stage for Hitler's rise of power in Germany in 1930s. Did NOT contain the Fourteen Points.

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Henry Cabot Lodge

Republican who disagreed with the Versailles Treaty, and who was the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He mostly disagreed with the section that called for the League of Nations to protect a member who was being threatened. He was a leader in the fight against participation in the League

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The "Irreconcilables"

Senators William Borah of Idaho and Hiram Johnson of California, led a group of people who were against the United States joining the League of Nations. Also known as "the Battalion of Death". They were extreme isolationists and were totally against the U.S. joining the League of Nations. Thought the T.O.V. was not that harsh enough (hun-haters).

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Hyphenated Americans

U.S. Americans who identify not only with being U.S. citizens but also as being members of ethnic groups.

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Lodge's fourteen "Reservations"

A mockery of Wilson's Fourteen Points, this stated to reserve the rights of the United States under the Monroe Doctrine and the Constitution and otherwise sought to protect American sovereignty.

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Article X of the League of Nations

Article of the LON that morally bound the U.S. to aid any member that was experiencing external aggression. the U.S. Senate rejected the Treaty of Versailles because it would force the U.S. to send troops without Congressional approval. In other words, think of NATO Article 5.

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Wilson and the Senate vote for the Treaty of Versailles

November 19, 1919, the Treaty of Versailles was defeated by a vote of 55 to 39. Brought up for a vote again, March 19, 1920, the treaty failed again, in part to Wilson's telling of Democrats to vote against the treaty...again. Wilson's feud with Lodge, U.S. isolationism, tradition, and disillusionment all contributed to the failure of the treaty, but Wilson must share the blame as well. He sought "all or nothing."

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Solemn Referendum of 1920

Wilson's belief that the presidential election of 1920 should constitute a direct popular vote on the League of Nations. Reunited Republicans will devise a clever platform appealing to pro and anti League factions of the party, choosing Warren G. Harding as the presidential candidate, with Calvin Coolidge as the VP candidate. Democrats chose Governor James M. Cox of Ohio, and Assistant Navy Secretary Franklin D. Roosevelt as VP, and supported a League of Nations, but not necessarily the League of Nations.

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American Isolationism

America's interests were best served by secluding itself from other nations and avoiding alliances after the end of WWI. It doomed the Treaty of Versailles and indirectly led to WWII. The suffering of Germany and the disorder were used by Adolf Hitler to seize power, build popularity, and drag Europe into World War II. The United States had to take charge as the most powerful nation in the world, but fell into this, hoping we would not be dragged into another war. Ironically, these actions led the United States into WWII (Japan will be on their radar soon)...

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