social studies 2201

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Innovation

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unit 2 chap 4.0-4.4

40 Terms

1

Innovation

When an existing object or method is made more effective or efficient

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2

Invention

Entirely new object or method is introduced

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3

Prehistory

Period in human history before the development of writing

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4

Ancient Era

Period of human history from 3000 BCE - 476 CE

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5

Middle Ages

Period of human history from 500 CE - 1500 CE

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6

Modern Era

Period of human history from 1500 CE to present time

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7

Paleolithic Era

The period from about 2.5 million years ago to 8,000 BCE, also known as the Old Stone Age

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8

Neolithic Era

The period of human history from 8000 BCE to 3000 BCE.

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9

Artifacts

Human-made objects that can reveal aspects of culture.

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10

Culture

A people‘s unique way of life and involve shared ways of doing things in common.

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11

Hominid

Creatures that walk upright.

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12

Technology

Ways of applying knowledge, tools, and inventions to meet needs.

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13

Lithic

A word meaning “stone”, often referring to stone tools.

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14

Common Era (CE)

The time period that refers to dates after the year 0.

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15

Before the Common Era (BCE)

The time period that refers to dates before the year 0.

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16

Before present (BP)

A time reference used to refer to dates many thousands or millions of years in the past.

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17

Agriculture

The growing of crops

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18

Neolithic Revolution

The change in human life characterized by development of agriculture and permanent settlement.

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19

Slash-and-burn

An early farming method that increased yields through use of ashes.

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20

Domestication

The taming of animals to provide a steady source of protein.

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21

Catal Huyuk

A example of a Neolithic settlement in what is today Turkey. It has few roads and people get about on rooftops.

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22

Granary

Building used to store crops and grain.

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23

Civilization

A complex culture with five characteristics, which developed first in ancient Sumer.

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24

Specialization

The development of skills in a particular kind of work, which increases efficiency.

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25

Artisan

Workers who make goods by hand.

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26

Institution

A long-lasting pattern of organization in a community.

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27

Scribe

These were professional record keepers in ancient Sumer.

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28

Cuneiform

An early writing system that used wedge-shaped symbols.

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29

Bronze Age

A period beginning in ancient Sumer characterized by items being made of copper and tin melted together.

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30

Ziggurat

A massive temple in the Sumerian city of Ur that served as the centre of religion and government.

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31

Phoencians

Ancient civilization found in the eastern Mediterranean that made well-designed merchant ships that carry more cargo for trade and travel farther.

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32

Gauloi

Boat developed by the Phoenicians that was wide, had a great amount of storage space, and was equipped with a sail.

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33

Aqueduct

A navigable channel constructed on arches to move water from one place to another, first developed by the Romans.

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34

Stirrup

An invention that made fighting from horseback more effective, resulting in the creation of mounted knights in Western europe.

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35

Feudalism

A social and political structure in which a vassal held land from a king or great lord in exchange for military service.

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36

Printing press

An innovation of the late Middle Ages that dramatically increased the rate of book copying.

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37

Johannes Gutenberg

A German blacksmith who used movable type to create the first printing press.

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38

Smallpox vaccine

An innovation that used a mild version of a viral infection to create the first protection against serious viral infections.

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39

Edward Jenner

A country doctor in England during the 18th century who developed the first vaccine.

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40

Steam Engine

Developed in the 1700s, was fueled by coal, and created great amounts of energy. It was first used to remove water from coal mines.

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