Physical Science Exam

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acceleration

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1

acceleration

The rate at which velocity changes

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2

Analyze graphs and make conclusions based on the information from the velocity-time graph

Analyze graphs and make conclusions based on the information from the velocity-time graph

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3

atomic mass of an atom

protons + neutrons

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4

average speed

total distance divided by total time

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5

Bohr model of the atom

a dense, positively charged nucleus is surrounded by electrons revolving around the nucleus in orbits with distinct energy levels

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6

Calculate distance, speed, velocity, and acceleration.

D = vt + 1/2a*t^2

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7

Calculate force, mass, and acceleration from a given scenario

F=MA

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8

Calculate net force given a force diagram (free-body diagram).

F net force = F1 + F2 + F3 + ....

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9

Calculate the average atomic mass of an element

Calculate the average atomic mass of an element

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10

Calculate weight, mass, and acceleration from a given scenario

W=MG

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11

combination reaction

a chemical change in which two or more substances react to form a single new substance

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12

combustion reaction

a chemical reaction that occurs when a substance reacts with oxygen, releasing energy in the form of heat and light

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13

Conversion between different units

Giga- Billion , Mega- Million , Kilo- Thousand , Hecto- Hundred , Deca - ten , Deci- 1/10, Centi- 1/100 , Milli- 1/1000 , Micro- 1/million, Nano- 1/billion

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14

Conversion in metric system with different prefixes

Conversion in metric system with different prefixes

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15

decomposition reaction

a reaction in which a single compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances

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16

Define force

strength or energy as an attribute of physical action or movement.

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17

Define friction

the resistance that one surface or object encounters when moving over another.

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18

Derive acceleration from a velocity-time graph.

Derive acceleration from a velocity-time graph.

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19

Derive information from the periodic table. atomic number, atomic mass, period and group number, valence electrons, element symbol and name

Derive information from the periodic table. atomic number, atomic mass, period and group number, valence electrons, element symbol and name

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20

Derive position from a velocity-time graph.

Derive position from a velocity-time graph.

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21

Derive velocity from a position-time graph.

Derive velocity from a position-time graph.

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22

Describe the difference between speed and velocity.

Speed is the time rate at which an object is moving along a path, while velocity is the rate and direction of an object's movement

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23

Determine the period and group number of different elements on the periodic table

Determine the period and group number of different elements on the periodic table

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24

distance

The length of a path between two points

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25

double-replacement reaction

a chemical change that involves an exchange of positive ions between two compounds

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26

Draw Bohr's model, write the electron arrangement and determine the valence electrons

Draw Bohr's model, write the electron arrangement and determine the valence electrons

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27

Draw position-time graph and acceleration time graph based on the velocity-time graph.

Draw position-time graph and acceleration time graph based on the velocity-time graph.

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28

elements' atoms tend to form positive or negative ions

Metals are Positive, No-Metals are Negative

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29

Explain how the percent abundance of isotopes affects the calculation of the average atomic mass of an element

Use the atomic masses of each of the isotopes along with their percent abundances to calculate the average atomic mass. Change each percent abundance into decimal form by dividing by 100. Multiply this value by the atomic mass of that isotope. Add together for each isotope to get the average atomic mass

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30

How do different factors influence the strength of gravity?

Gravity is affected by the size of an object and the distance between the objects.

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31

How do we change the motion of an object?

A force can change the direction in which an object is moving. A bigger force on an object will produce a bigger change in the motion.

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32

ions

positively and negatively charged atoms

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33

isotopes

Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

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34

mass number of an atom

sum of protons and neutrons

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35

Rutherford model of the atom

Rutherford concluded that the atom is mostly empty space. All the positive charge and almost all of the mass are concentrated in a small region called the nucleus. Rutherford could NOT explain an atom's stability.

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36

Schrodinger model of the atom

This model assumes that electrons in the atom may be described by wavefunctions. The electron has an undefined position, but the square of the amplitude of the wavefunction gives the probability of finding the electron at a particular point.

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37

SI unit symbol for the base unit of different quantities

SI unit symbol for the base unit of different quantities

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38

single-replacement reaction

a chemical change in which one element replaces a second element in a compound

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39

speed

Distance travelled per unit time

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40

State the unit for weight

kilogram

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41

the differences between a physical change and a chemical change

physical change the appearance or form of the matter changes but the kind of matter in the substance does not. However in a chemical change, the kind of matter changes and at least one new substance with new properties is formed

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42

The location, charge, and mass of different subatomic particles

These are the protons, neutrons, and electrons. Protons are positively charged particles, have mass, and are located in the center, or nucleus of the atom. Neutrons have no charge, have mass, and are also located in the nucleus of the atom.

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43

the physical properties of ionic compounds and covalent compounds

Ionic compounds tend to be brittle in their solid form and have very high melting temperatures. Covalent compounds tend to be soft, and have relatively low melting and boiling points

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44

the process of ionic bonds and covalent bond formation

Covalent bonding involves the sharing of electrons between two or more atoms. Ionic bonds form when two or more ions come together and are held together by charge differences

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45

Thompson model of the atom

plum pudding model, electrons embedded inside of positively charged atom

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46

types of bonds based on the chemical formula of a compound

Covalent or molecular compounds form when elements share electrons in a covalent bond to form molecules. Molecular compounds are electrically neutral. Ionic compounds are formed when a metal reacts with a nonmetal

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47

velocity

Speed in a given direction

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48

What does friction produce?

Friction produces heat.

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49

What does Newton's first law of motion state?

"A body at rest remains at rest and a body in motion continues to move at a constant speed in a straight line, unless an external force acts upon it."

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50

what happens to the reactants during a chemical reaction at the molecular level

reactants contact each other, bonds between atoms in the reactants are broken, and atoms rearrange and form new bonds to make the products

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51

What is air resistance?

The force of the air pushing against an object, slowing it down.

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52

What is gravity?

a force of attraction between objects due to their masses

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53

What is inertia?

The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion

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54

What is Newton's second law of motion?

The acceleration of an object depends on the mass of the object and the amount of force applied.

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55

What is Newton's third law of motion?

For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

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56

what is the acceleration due to gravity?

9.8 m/s^2

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57

What is the relationship between force and acceleration?

They are directly proportional. If you increase the force applied to an object, the acceleration of that object increases by the same factor. In short, force equals mass times acceleration

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58

What is the relationship between mass and acceleration?

The more mass an object has, more force is necessary for it to accelerate.

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59

What is the unit for force?

Newtons

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60

What would happen to the moving object if there's no unbalanced force?

An object at rest will remain at rest, and an object that is moving at a constant velocity will continue moving at a constant velocity unless acted upon by unbalanced force.

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61

Write the nuclear symbol of an isotope

Write the nuclear symbol of an isotope

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