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33 Terms

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Statistics

science of analyzing and gathering data

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individual data

people or things that are being studied

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Variable data

characteristics or values being studied

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What are ways to gather data

by counting, measuring, asking questions, surveys, or general observations

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Examples of variables

Major, Grade, Points

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Examples of individuals

Names of ppl surveyed

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categorical variable

labels or descriptions ex: major or grades

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numerical variable

numerical measurements ex: points

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How do you summarize categorical variables?

By using a proportion percent

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How do you summarize numerical variables

by using the mean/average

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continuous variables

variables that can take on any value in a given data set

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discrete variables

variables that can only take on a particular value in a data set

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Which describes a discrete variable

a

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Which describes a continuous variable

b

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Population

All individuals as a group

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Sample

smaller group of individuals; a subset of a population

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census

getting data from every individual in a population

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Parameter

numeric summary that comes from population population --> parameter

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Statistic

numeric summary that comes from a sample sample--> statistic

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Types of Samples

Representative sample, Random sample, Convenience sample

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Representative sample

same relevant characteristics as population, not favorable of one group over another

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random sample

a sample in which every element in the population has an equal chance of being selected

a random sample is a form of a representative sample

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convenience sample

sample where individuals are chosen because they are easy to observe

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biased statistical study

design or execution that will favor certain outcomes over others

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selection bias

sample method chosen leads to unrepresentable samples of population

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What are the two types of statistical studies?

Observational studies and experiments

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Observational study

observing or surveying individuals

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Experiment

an attempt to influence or change individuals

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Subjects

individuals or things we are receiving data from

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Explanatory variable (Treatment)

(Independent) variable in the experiment that researchers change, affect, or influence

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Response Variable

(Dependent) variable in experiment that is expected to respond to the explanatory variable

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Extraneous variables

Variables other than explanatory or response variables that may affect the outcome or response variable Ex: time, temperature, schedules, etc.

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confounding variable

an extraneous variable that does affect the outcome of the experiment/response variable

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