Unit 5 AP Psychology

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Effortful Processing

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65 Terms

1

Effortful Processing

processing that does involve conscious effort or deliberation

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2

Automatic Processing

processing that does not involve conscious effort or deliberation

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3

Deep Processing

encoding semantically based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention

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4

shallow processing

encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words

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5

Selective attention

the process where an individual chooses something, in particular, to focus on blocking all irrelevant distractions.

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6

divided attention

the capability to process more than one information at a time

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7

metacognition

the knowledge and regulation of one’s own cognitive processes

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8

short term memory

is able to hold a few items for a short period of time, comes from recent thoughts and experiences, the ability to remember 7 digits phone number

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9

long term memory

it is a memory that is relatively permanent, is limitless, and contains knowledge, skills, and experiences. (Flashblub)

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10

implicit memory (procedural()

a form of long term memory that doesn’t require any conscious retrieval, independent (non-declarative memory)

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11

sensory memory

memory that often comes from sensory information and it occurs for very brief/immediate moments

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12

echoic memory

a form of sensory memory regarding auditory stimuli

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13

iconic memory

a form of sensory memory that deals with visual stimuli

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14

prospective memory

the ability to remember to carry out intended actions in the future

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15

explicit memory

memory of facts and experiences that once can consciously know and declare (declarative memory)

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16

Semantic memory

the memory of concepts, facts and meanings of words symbols etc…

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17

episodic memory

the memory of personal experiences

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18

Flash bulb memory

a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

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19

Visual encoding

the process of getting recollection through visual stimuli

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20

acoustic encoding

the process of getting memory through auditory stimuli

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21

semantic encoding

the process of taking information retrieved through our senses and putting meaning behind them

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22

rehearsal

constant repeating of information to help with memory of the subject

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23

chunking

organizing items into familiar manageable units; often occurs automatically

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24

recall

the process of retrieving information from out memory without any help ex. fill in the blank

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25

recognition

the process where other stimuli help us to remember ex. multiple choice questions

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26

serial position effect

When given a list we often remember the very beginning and last the best

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27

mnemonic devices

memory aid: Never Eat Soggy Waffles

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28

prototype

a mental image or best example of a category: Eagle = Bird, Penguin = Bird?

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29

Schema

a cognitive structure that serves as a framework for one’s knowledge about people, places, object, and events. Memory organizer

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30

retroactive interference

block of retrieving new information

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31

Proactive interference

the block of retrieving old information

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32

amnesia

the loss of memory

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33

long term potentiation

an increase in cells firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation often occurring in the synaptic gap.

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34

algorithm

solving problems through a step-by-step process

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35

heuristic

a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems more efficiently

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36

mental set

the tendency of the brain to continue to use solutions that already worked for different problems

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37

functional fixedness

the inability to see a problem from a different perspective

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38

misinformation effect

the incorporation of misleading information into one’s memory of an event

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39

Noam Chomsky

all languages share basic element, universal grammar

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40

Hermann Ebbinghaus

massed practice can produce speedy short-term learning and confidence while distributed practices produce long-term memory: Spacing effect

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41

Elizabeth Loftus

famous for research on false memories, female memory researcher

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42

Wolfgang Kohler

conducted experiments on problem solving by chimpanzees

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43

George A. Miller

recognized that the human mind can be understood using an information processing model.

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44

Abstract Measures

tests that doesnt use word problems to assess abilities: Matching logical sequences etc..

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45

Verbal measures

tests that use word problems to assess abilities

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46

Speed of processing

the amount of time it takes for an individual to perform a mental task

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47

Fluid Intelligence

our ability to reason speedily and abstractly as when solving novel logic problems; decreases as you get older

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48

Crystallized intelligence

our accumulated knowledge as reflected in vocab and analogies tests; increases as we get older

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49

Flynn Effect

the increase in general intelligence among the population

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50

stereotype threat

when an individualndividual feels at risk of confirming a negative stereotype given to a group

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51

savant syndrome

an individual with a low overall intelligence, but has an island of brilliance, usually autistic usually

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52

standardization

defining uniform testing procedures and meaningful scores by comparisons with the performance of a pretested group

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53

reliability

able to give consistent scores

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54

validity

the extent to which a test actually measures or predicts what it promises

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55

Normal curve

bell curve where the highest amount of placement occurs in the middle

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56

Biases

the tendency, inclination or prejudice toward or against something or someone

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57

intellectual disability

anyone who scores lower than an IQ of 70

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58

IQ

known as intelligence quotient, tests an individual’s performance relative to their age

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59

mental age

the mental processing levels relative to their age, a mental processing level of a 11 year old in a 8 year old will perform better than one who has an average mental processing level

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60

Howard Gardner

Theory of Multiple Intelligence: 8 or 9 different bits of intelligence ranging from naturalist to linguistics and logical-mathematical. “Not just one intelligence”

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61

Robert Sternberg

Triarchic Theory: Analytical, Creative, Practical (Street smart)

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62

Charles Spearmen

argued that intelligence can be expressed by a single factor. G Factor

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63

Francis Galton

was it possible to measure “natural ability” and was influenced by natural selection

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64

Alfred Binet

all children follow the same course of intellectual development, some just develop much faster. Mental Age

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65

Lewis Terman

came to appreciate that test scores reflected not only people’s innate mental abilities, but also their education, native language, and familiarity with the culture assumed by the test

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