Chapter 5 vocab

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Amorphous Solid

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37 Terms

1

Amorphous Solid

A solid in which the constituent atoms have a regular arrangement 

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2

Atom

The smallest unit of an element that can exist and still retain its identity as that element

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3

Becke line

A bright halo observed near the border of a particle immersed in a liquid of a different refractive index 

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4

Birefringence

A difference in the two indices of refraction exhibited by most crystalline materials

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5

Celsius Scale

The temperature scale that defines the melting point of ice as 0 degrees and the boiling point of wateras 100 degrees with 100 equal divisions or degrees between 

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6

Chemical Property

A property that describes the behavior of a substance when it combines with another substance

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7

Compound

A pure substance composed of two or more elements 

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8

Concentric Fracture

A crack in glass that forms a rough circle around the point of impact.

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9

Crystalline solid

A solid in which the constituent atoms have a regular arrangement 

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10

Density

A physical property of matter that is equivalent to the mass per unit volume of the substance

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11

Dispersion

The separation of light into its component wavelengths.

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12

Electromagnetic Spectrum

The entire range of radiation from the most energetic cosmic rays to the least energetic radio waves.

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13

Element

A fundamental particle of matter that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means.

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14

Fahrenheit Scale

The temperature scale that defines the melting point of ice as 32 degrees and the boiling point of water as 212 degrees, with 180 equal divisions or degrees between.

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15

Frequency

The number of waves that pass a given point per unit of time.

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16

Gas (Vapor)

A state of matter in which the attractive forces between molecules are weak enough to permit them to move with complete freedom

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17

Intensive Property

A property that is not dependent on the size of an object.

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18

Laminated Gas

Two sheets of ordinary glass bonded together with a plastic film

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19

Laser

An acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation; light that has all its waves pulsating in unison.

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20

Liquid

A state of matter in which the attractive forces are strong enough to allow molecules to be in contact with one another but too weak to hold them rigidly in place

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21

Mass

a constant property that refers to the amount of matter an object contains

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22

Matter

anything that has mass and takes up space

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23

Periodic Table

 a chart of all known elements arranged in a systematic fashion

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24

Phase

A uniform substance separated from other substances by definite visible boundaries

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25

Photon

a discrete particle of electromagnetic radiation

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26

Physical Property

a property that describes the behavior of a substance without reference to any other substance

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27

Physical State

a physical form taken by matter: solid liquid or gas

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28

Radial Fracture

a crack in a glass that extends outward like the spoke of a wheel form the point at which the glass was stuck

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29

Refraction

the bending of a light wave caused by a changed in its velocity

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30

Refractive Index

the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to its speed in a given medium

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31

Solid

a state of matter in which molecules are held together by a strong attractive force

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32

Sublimation

A change of state from a solid directly into gas.

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33

Tempered Glass

Glass to which strength is added by introducing stress through rapid heating and cooling of glass surfaces.

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34

Visible Light

 Colored light ranging from red to violet in the electromagnetic spectrum.

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35

Wavelength

The distance between crests of adjacent waves.

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36

Weight

The force with which gravity attracts a body.

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37

X-ray

The high-energy short wavelength form of electromagnetic radiation.

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