memory

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Psychology

91 Terms

1

memory

learning that persists over time

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2

human memory is a ____ system

interpretive

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3

reconstructive process

perception of event (puzzle)

information undergoes systematic changes as it is processed

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4

encoding

process of getting information into the memory system

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5

automatic processing

unconscious encoding of incidental information

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6

implicit memories

automatic processing, learned skills or classically conditioned associations independent of conscious recollection

ex. riding a bike

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7

effortful processing

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

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8

explicit memories

effortful processing, facts and experiences that we can consciously know and recall

ex. school

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9

storage

retention of encoded material over time; holding on to info

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10

access and retrieval

the location and recovery of info from memory; pulling info from storage

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11

three-stage model

external event—>sensory—> working/short-term—> long term—> short term

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12

sensory memory

briefly holds information from our environment and feeds our working memory; no meaningful encoding; a few Seconds

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13

working/short-term memory

attaches meaning to sensory memory info by integrating it with info in long-term memory; attention, 20-30 seconds, can hold about 7 pieces of info- CIA FBI example

mental workspace

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14

chunking

organizing items in to manageable chunks

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15

mnemonics

memory aids (acronyms, rhymes, stories, imagery)

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16

spacing effect

distributed study practice to yield better long-term retention than cramming

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17

personal meaning

relating an event from personal experience to help associate and memory

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18

long-term memory

long term storage of information, unlimited capacity and duration, contains schemas

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19

flashbulb memories

longterm, a clear and vivid LT memory of an especially meaningful event

ex. day izzy died

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20

episodic

memory of personally experienced events or “episodes”

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21

semantic

memory of facts and general knowledge

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22

schema

web of knowledge or association in semantic memory, gives context for understanding an event, provides framework for interpretation

ex. sandlot on whiteboard from class

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23

procedural memories

our memory of “how” to do something, space time and frequency memories, associations such as those in classical conditioning

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24

key brain areas

cerebellum and basal ganglia

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25

cerebellum

The cerebellum is a brain region that controls coordination, balance, and motor control. Damage to the cerebellum can cause issues with motor skills, coordination, and balance

back of brain

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26

basal ganglia

The brain region responsible for motor control, reward, and habit formation also regulates muscle tone and movement coordination. ase.

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27

amygdala activation

when events come with greater emotions were more likely to remember them

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28

successful retrieval of memories

how memories were encoded, how memories are cued

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29

retrieval cues

stimuli used to bring a memory to consciousness or cue a behavior

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30

priming

the activation often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

hear and here example from class

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31

recall

retrieval method in which one must reproduce previously presented information

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32

recognition

retrieval method in which one must identify present stimuli as having been previously presented

ex. multiple choice question

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33

encoding specificity principle

The principle stating that memory retrieval is most effective when the context and cues at encoding match those at retrieval.

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34

Motivation

a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior, influenced by nature and nurture

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35

instinct theory

focuses on instincts, behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unearned (nature)

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36

replaced my evolutionary perspective

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37

evolutionary perspective

the theory that seeks to identify behavior that is a result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors

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38

our preference for high calorie food

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39

perspective

a point of view or general standpoint from which different things are viewed, physically or mentally

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40

instinct

a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

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41

physiological needs

need to satisfy hunger and thirst

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42

drive-reduction theory

physiological needs creates an aroused state (or drive) that moves an organism to satisfy the need

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43

Homestasis

the maintenance of a constant internal state in a changing environment

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44

incentive

a reason for doing something; something that stimulates action

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45

arousal theory

some behaviors can increase arousal, special interest in the relationship between arousal and performance

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46

yerkes-dodson law

the principle that performance increases with arousal only up to a point, beyond which performance decreases

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47

hierarchy of needs

theorized that we are motivated to fulfill needs in priority order

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48

physiological needs

1st level, need to satisfy hunger and thirst

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49

safety needs

2nd level, need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable

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50

belongingness and love needs

3rd level, need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid loneliness and separation

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51

esteem needs

4th level, need for self-esteem, achievement, competence, and independence; need for recognition and respect from others

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52

self-actualization needs

5th level, need to live up to our fullest and unique potential

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53

self-transcendence needs

6th level, need to find meaning and identity beyond the self

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54

need for affiliation

desire to associate with others, to be part of a group, to form close and intimate relationships

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55

self-determination theory

theory of human motivation in which the social context of an action has an effect on the type of motivation existing for the action

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56

ostracism

deliberate social exclusion of individuals or groups

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57

narcassism

excessive self-love and self-absorption

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58

achievement motivation

a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard

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59

grit

in psychology, grit is passion and perseverance in the pursuit of long-term goals

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60

intrinsic motivation

A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake

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61

"I just like it" inside, internal

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62

extrinsic motivation

the desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment, directly related to operant conditioning

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63

external, good when we aren't intrinsically motivated

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64

Overjustification

extrinsic rewards reduce internal intrinsic motivation, except through performance

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65

emotion

special class of motives that help us respond to important situations and communicate our intentions to others

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66

James-Lange Theory (theory of emotion)

emotions result from attention to our bodily arousal following a stimulus

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67

see bear> heart beats faster> afraid

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68

Cannon-Bard Theory (theories of emotion)

the subjective feeling and bodily arousal occur separately yet simultaneously following a stimulus.

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69

see bear> afraid and heart beats faster

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70

Schachter-Singer two-factor theory (theory of emotion)

the first theory to take cognitive appraisal into account

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71

bodily arousal+ cognitive appraisal= emotional experience (what we tell ourselves)

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72

bridge theory

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73

bridge theory (schachter singers 2 factor theory)

discovered how a stirred up satte can be experienced as different emotions

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74

one man crosses a stable bridge and when asked to tell a story it was not sexual

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75

one man crossed an unstable bridge and when asked to tell a story it typically involved sexual content

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76

polygraph

a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes).

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77

slow response system (theory of emotion)

"high road" more complete appraisals of incoming stimuli, good for complex feelings, conscious and linked to explicit memory, relatively slow and thoughtful

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78

fast response system (theory of emotion)

"low road" enables fast emotional response before our intellect intervenes, outside conscious awareness, can act as an early warning system

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79

expressing emotions

our brain is an amazing detector of subtle expressions helping most of us read nonverbal cues as well

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80

identifying emotions

detect signs of trustworthiness, attraction, and threat, hard to detect deceit, the primary emotions are easiest

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81

IN CLASS ACTIVITY of facial expressions

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82

women are better at it than men

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83

facial feedback effect

the tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear, anger, or happiness

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84

smiling in class to increase mood

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85

basic/primary emotions

  • happiness

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86
  • interest'

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87
  • disgust

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88
  • anger

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  • sadness

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  • fear

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91

behavior feedback effect

the tendency of behavior to influence our own and others' thoughts, feelings, and actions

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