# science exam study guide

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41 Terms
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pressure

the force per unit area that is applied over a surface of an object

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fluid

a substance that has no definite shape and can flow; examples: water and ai

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buoyant force

an upward force that is exerted by a fluid on any object in the fluid

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Bernoulli's Principle

when the speed of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases

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higher velocity=

lower pressure

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Pascal's Principle

when a force is applied to a fluid in a closed container, the pressure in the fluid increases everywhere by the same amount

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Archemedes Principle

the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.

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kinetic energy

the energy an object has due to its motion

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potential energy

the stored energy an object has because of its position or state

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conservation of energy

a law of physics that states that the energy cannot be created or destroyed

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mass and height

What two factors determine how much PE an object has?

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thermal energy

the energy contained within a system due to the motion of the particles

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insulator

will not let heat in or out

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heat

thermal energy from hot to cold

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mass

the measurement of how much matter is in an object

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evaporation

happens when a liquid turns into gas

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condensation

the process by which gas becomes a liquid

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sublimation

when a solid becomes a gas without turning into a liquid first

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temperature

the average kinetic energy

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density = mass/volume

density formula

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pressure = force/area

pressure formula

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examples or radiant energy

campfire, microwaves, radio waves

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example of thermal energy

a cup of hot coffee

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example of mechanical energy

car on a hill, windmill rotating

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example of electrical energy

charging a phone, turning on a light

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example of geothermal energy

steam on the ground, volcanoes

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example of renewable energy

solar energy

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example or non-renewable energy

natural gas

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example of hydropower

hydraulic system

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example or chemical energy

batteries, petroleum

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conduction

The transfer of thermal energy between materials by the collisions of particles

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convection

the transfer of thermal energy by the movement of particles from one part of a material to another

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The transfer of thermal energy from one material to another by electromagnetic waves

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example or conduction

- heating a pan on a stove

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- ice melting in your hand

- hot air rising from above a fire

- ice melting

examples of convection

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- Hands over a fire

- Sun heating up inside of your car

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- rigid

- has a fixed shape

- has a fixed volume

properties of a solid

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- not rigid

- no fixed shape

- fixed volume

properties of a liquid

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- not rigid

- no fixed shape

- no fixed volume

properties of a gas

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air pressure drops

What happens to pressure when you increase in altitude?

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air pressure increases

What happens to pressure when you decrease in altitude?

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