american government test

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34 Terms
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money

anything that serves as a medium of exchange, a unit of account, and a store of value

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Socrates

(470-399 BCE) An Athenian philosopher who thought that human beings could lead honest lives and that honor was far more important than wealth, fame, or other superficial attributes.

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Pericles

Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon.

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Roman Republic

The period from 507 to 31 B.C.E., during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate.

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Sparta

A powerful Greek miliary polis that was often at war with Athens. Used slaves known as helots to provide agricultural labor.

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Athens

A democratic Greek polis who accomplished many cultural achievements, and who were constantly at war with Sparta.

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Julius Caesar

He wielded his power to enlarge the senate, created needed government reforms, and decreased Rome's debt. At the same time, he sponsored the building of the Forum Iulium and rebuilt two city-states, Carthage and Corinth. He also granted citizenship to foreigners living within the Roman Republic

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Pompey

Roman general and statesman who quarrelled with Caesar and fled to Egypt where he was murdered (106-48 BC) restored Rome's control over Spain and quelled the Spartacus slave revolt. Most importantly, eradicated piracy from the Mediterranean, ensuring Rome's undisputed mastership over the inner sea.

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Sulla

Powerful commander -- earned his men's loyalty; general who used his army for his political advantage -- started a civil war in Rome; killed his enemies; reduced power of tribunes, more power to patricians

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Octavian

Part of the second triumvirate whom the power eventually shifted to. Assumed the name Augustus Caesar, and became emperor. Was the end of the Roman Republic and the start of the Pax Romana.

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Augustus

(63 BCE - 14 CE) First emperor of Rome (27 BCE - 14 CE) He restored order and prosperity to the Empire after nearly a century of turmoil. Grandnephew to Julius Caesar.

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Marcus Crassus

Richest man in Rome. Decimated his army before defeating Spartacus. He and his son were killed fighting against the Parthian army in present day Syria.

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Gaius Marius

a consul who encouraged poor people to join the army

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Pnyx

Where the Athenian assembly met on a hill (Only free male citizens could vote, not women, slaves or foreigners)

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Polis

A city-state in ancient Greece. (literally means city)

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Patrician

In ancient Rome, a member of the privileged upper class.

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plebeian

(adj.) common, vulgar; belonging to the lower class; (n.) a common person, member of the lower class

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Senate

A group of 300 men elected to govern Rome in the Roman Republic.

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assembly

a group of citizens, in an ancient Greek democracy, with the power to pass laws

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Empire

A group of states or territories controlled by one ruler

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barbarian

a person belonging to a tribe or group that is considered uncivilized

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Feudalism

A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land

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Theocracy

A government controlled by religious leaders

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Dictatorship

A form of government in which the leader has absolute power and authority.

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Democracy

A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them

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Republic

A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting

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Monarchy

A government ruled by a king or queen

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Martin Luther

95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.

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Plato's Republic

a book that describes the idea state under a philosopher king and described how the government should regulate all aspects of citizen's lives

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95 Theses

It was nailed to a church door in Wittenberg, Germany in 1517 and is widely seen as being the catalyst that started the Protestant Reformation. It contained Luther's list of accusations against the Roman Catholic Church.

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Letter to the Christian Nobility

a letter sent by martin luther to those in power to highlight abuse of the state under the rule of the Christian church

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Twelve Tables

Rome's first code of laws; adopted in 450 B.C. provided an early understanding of some key concepts such as justice, equality, and punishment

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Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Peasants

a piece written by martin luther in response to the German peasant's war as a result of Martin Luther's letter to the christian nobility

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Magna Carta

the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215 the first document to put into writing the principle that the king and his government was not above the law

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