Theory #3

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_________ has the following common causes: Addison's disease, decreased sodium intake, diabetic ketoacidiosis, diuretic therapy, perspiration, water intoxication, excessive vomiting or diarrhea

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1

_________ has the following common causes: Addison's disease, decreased sodium intake, diabetic ketoacidiosis, diuretic therapy, perspiration, water intoxication, excessive vomiting or diarrhea

Hypoantremia (deficit) - sodium

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2

________ has the following common causes: most commonly from dehydration, respiratory infection, corticosteroid therapy, impaired renal function, increased sodium intake

Hypernatremia (excess) - Sodium

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3

______ plays a crucial role in the excitability of muscles and neurons, regulating fluid balance, sodium leaves the body through urine, sweat, feces

sodium

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4

______ has the following common causes: occurs with excess potassium, or loss of body water; decreased dietary intake of potassium, vomiting, diarrhea, excess sweating, starvation

Hypokalemia (deficit) - Potassium

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5

_____ has the following common causes: occurs with burns, crush injuries, renal failure, Addison's disease, metabolic acidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis

Hyperkalemia (excess)- potassium

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6

____ has the following common causes: occurs with nutritional deficiency of calcium or vitamin D or in bone disorders such as metastatic cancer of the bone.

Hypocalcemia (deficit) - calcium

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7

____ has the following common causes: most cases related to hyperparathyroidism, malignacy such as multiple myeloma; acute osteoporosis, vitamin D intoxication

Hypercalcemia (excess) - calcium

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8

______: major abrupt, drastic changes; new virus produced in humans

Antigenic shift

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9

______: minor small, gradual changes or mutations in genes of a virus

Antigenic Drift

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10

_______ is the process of moving gases into and out of the lungs

Ventilation

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11

_____ is the exchange of respiratory gases in the alveoli and capillaries

Diffusion

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12

______ is the ability of the cardiovascular system to pump oxygenated blood to the tissues and return deoxygenated blood to the lungs

Perfusion

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13

______ : low levels of oxygen (O2) in the blood

Hypoxemia

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14

______: decreased tissue oxygenation

Hypoxia

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15

______: is abnormally elevated carbon dioxide (co2) level in the blood

Hypercapnia

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16

_____: chemical produced in the lungs to maintain the surface tension of the the alveoli and keep them from collapsing

Surfactant

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17

_______: collapse of the alveoli that prevents the normal exchange of oxygen and carbon dioixde

Atelectasis

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18

_______: deep and slow, laboured breathing often associated with severe metabolic acidosis

Kussmaul's respiration

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19

______: abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by progressively deeper, and sometimes faster, breathing followed by a gradual decrease that results in a temporary stop in breathing (apnea)

Cheyenne stokes respirations

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20

__________: encourage voluntary deep breathing

Incentive spirometer

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21

_________: Maintains positive airway pressure and improves alveolar ventilation

Non-invasion positive pressure ventilation

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22

What is the first line of defence

Skin, biochemical barriers

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23

what is the second line of defence?

inflammatory response, local manifestations, vascular responses

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24

Limit and control the inflammatory process, prevent and limit infection and further damage. What is this?

Infalmmation

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25

Complement system, coagulation system, kinin system are what?

Plasma protein systems

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26

Can destroy pathogens directly, activates or collaborates with every other component of the inflammatory response, compliments system pathways (classical, lectin, alternative). This is ?

Compliment system

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27

Forms a fibrinous meshwork at an injured or inflamed site: prevents the spread of infection, keeps micro-organisms and foreign bodies at the site of greater inflammatory cell activity, Main substance is an insoluble protein called fibrin. this is?

Coagulation (clotting) system

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28

Less understood, with limited research, primary kinin (blood protein) is bradykinin, functions to activate and assist inflammatory cells. This is?

Kinin system (hormonal)

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29

Interleukins, interferon, tumor necrosis factor-alpha are all apart of what?

Cytokines

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30

_________: vasoactive amine that causes dilation of the blood vessels, retraction of endotheial cells lining the blood vessels

Histamine

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31

________ are found in the smooth muscle cells, and the endothelium cells that line the blood vessels, heart, lung, and CNS. These cause vasodilation

H1 receptors

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32

_______ are found in the parietal cells of the stomach mucosa

H2 receptors

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33

_________ have similar effects to histamine in later stages

Leukotrienes

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34

______ have similar effects to leukotrienes; & induce pain

Prostaglandins

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35

______ have similar effects to leukotrienes and platelet activation

Platelet activating factors

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36

______: circulates in the blood and migrates to the tissues, ingests bacteria, dead cells, and cellular debris but also healthy cells

Neutrophils

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37

_______ & ________: are produced in the bone marrow, enter the circulation and migrate to the inflammatory site, and they typically arrive at the inflammatory site 24 hours or later after

Monocytes & macrophages

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38

______: Regulate vasular mediatory, circulates in the blood and migrates to the tissue, only mildly phagocytic but can release toxins that kill parasites and bacteria

Eosinophils

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39

_______: secretes anti-clotting factors (heparin) to prevent clotting too quickly

Basophils

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40

_______: found in peripheral organs and close tot he surface of the skin, helps with both second and third line of defence

Dendritic cells

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41

_________: active during wound healing

T lymphocytes

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42
  1. Identification

  2. adherence

  3. engulfment

  4. phagosome formation

  5. fusion with lysosomal graulates

  6. Destruction of the target this is _________

Phagocytosis

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43

Water exudate: indicates early inflammation

Serous exudate

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44

thick, clotted exudate indicates more advance inflammation

Fibrinous exudate

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45

Pus: indicated bacterial infection

Purulent exudate

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46

Exudate contains blood indicates bleeding

sanguineous (hemorrhagic) exudate

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47

_________: wounds that heal under conditions of minimal tissue loss

Primary intention

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48

_______: wounds that require a great deal more tissue replacement (open wound)

Secondary intention

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49

Colonization, invasion, multiplication, spread are all part of what?

Components of infection

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50

_________: diseases with relatively high, but constant, rates of infection in a particular population

Endemic

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51

_______: number of new infections in a particular population greatly exceeds the number usually observed

Epidemic

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52

________: an epidemic that spreads over a large area

Pandemic

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53

Incubation, prodromal, invasion and convalescence are the ___________

stages of infection

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54

Bacteria requires _____ to grow and reproduce

Iron

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55

Viral replication do not require ______ to grow & produce

Iron

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56

________ that invades the skin, hair, or nails are known as dermatophytes

Fungi

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57

Viral vaccines: _______: Weakened live virus (MMR, varicella, polio/oral)

Attenuated

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58

Viral vaccines: _______: killed virus (hepatitis A, Polio/injected, influenza)

Inactivated

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59

_______: not vary immunogenic in children

Dead bacteria vaccines

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60

_______: increased immunogenicity, haemophilia influenza type B

Conjugated bacterial vaccines

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61

_______: vaccines against bacterial toxins

Toxoids bacterial vaccines

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