Unit 3 - Main Vocabulary - 2022

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Human Development Index (HDI)

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Human Development Index (HDI)

A numerical way of measuring the development of a country that looks at demographic, social and economic factors

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More Developed Countries (MDCs)

A Country that has progressed further along the UN HDI continuum (.8-1.0)

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Less Developed Countries (LDCs)

A Country that has made some progress along the UN HDI continuum but its progress is less compared to other nations (0-.6)

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Urbanization

The process in which people move from rural areas to those with higher population densities

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Central Business District (CBD)

Symbolic center of a city for business and entertainment. Can be found by its tall and modern buildings

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Squatter Settlements

Less developed areas of a city where people live illegally - often these are for new migrants to cities who can’t afford to live anywhere else. Seen on the edges of many megacities

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Suburbs

Residential areas located around the city. People often live in the suburbs and commute to the CBD for work

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Ethnic enclaves

an area of a city or region that has a distinctive ethnic identity that is different than the surrounding areas

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Commercial Zone

Where people work and businesses are located (offices, stores)

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Residential Zone

Where people live (houses, townhomes and apartments are located there)

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Industrial Zone

Where things are made and factories are located (also warehouses)

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Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)

an area with a central city that has 50,000 people or more

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Megacity

a city that has more than 10 million (10,000,000) people in it

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World Cities

Cities that have an influence on culture or finance that is more important than their population size

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New Urbanism

a planning and development approach based on the principles of: walkable blocks and streets, housing and shopping in close proximity, and accessible public spaces.

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Urban renewal

When the government takes old parts of a city and tears them down to build new, modern buildings (could be residential/housing) or for businesses.

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Gentrification

When private individuals or businesses take low income parts of a city and rebuild them to try to attract more high income residents.

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Heat Islands

A condition where the urban area can be warmer than the surrounding areas due to human activities

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Placelessness

Similar design styles and construction materials as well as architecture styles mean that places often look similar all over the world causes a loss of a sense of community

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Sprawl

When suburbs keep growing further and further from city centers they take up more and more rural land

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Smart Growth

city planners pass laws to design and plan for sustainable city growth

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Zoning Laws

Laws that specify what kind of development is allowed where (ex. residential, commercial, industrial)

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Green spaces

undeveloped sections within a city or on its outskirts where people can enjoy nature and relaxation

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Commuter roads

large roads, highways, or freeways that are designed to get people into and out of the city as quickly as possible

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Grid organization

Streets are arranged on a grid (usually North/South - East/West) to make finding absolute locations easier

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Site Factors

the physical characteristics of a place considered when deciding where to locate an industry

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Situation Factors

where to put an industry as it relates to nearby factors, especially transportation

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Agglomeration

When businesses locate close together to take advantage of supply networks and infrastructure to lower their transportation costs

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Range

The maximum distance a person will travel to purchase something

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Threshold

The minimum number of people to support a service

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