Comm 354 - TAMU - Bukart - Exam 2

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National party

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National party

a political party in South Africa founded in 1914 that was for the apartheid regime (bad guys)

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Cultural imperialism

a country/culture becoming powerful, thus pushing their way of life (culture) onto other (usually smaller) countries/cultures (usually unwanted)

  • South Africa fought to express their true culture because the whites living their were practicing this term

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Civil liberties

guarantees and freedoms that governments commit not to restrict

(this is a western term - all adding into the theme)

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Racial mixing

the breeding of mixed races

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Cosmopolitanism

the belief that all people are entitled to equal respect and consideration, no matter what their citizenship status or other affiliations happen to be

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Democratic constitution

government in which the people vote for representatives or laws, and in which the laws are authorized and constrained by a constitution

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Liberal-democratic

an elected government cannot discriminate against specific individuals or groups when making or enforcing laws and programs.

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Fourth Estate

the press and news media both in direct capacity of advocacy and implied ability to frame political issues.

*establishment and support of the media from the government to freely report on political issues

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Press freedom

fundamental principle that communication and expression through various media should be considered a right to be exercised freely.

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Citizenship

A legal status and relation between an individual and a state that entails specific legal rights and duties

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Public sphere

an area in social life where individuals can come together to freely discuss and identify societal problems, and through that discussion influence political action.

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Disparities

a noticeable and usually significant difference or dissimilarity specifically: economic/income disparities (huge divide between poor and others in Africa)

A digital divide gap in terms of access to digital news and communication

(digital divide)

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Literacy rates

The proportion of the adult population aged 15 years and over which is literate

low literacy rates lead to lack of communication and media consumption, as well as across African languages

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Community media

any form of media that function in service of or by a community

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What were the firms, agencies, and organizations Wasserman discusses as cases supporting his overall argument? **

  1. ANC

  2. Nationalist Party

  3. BRICS

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Timeline of pre-apartheid, apartheid, and post-apartheid eras in South Africa:**

  1. OG people were there

  2. settlers came (whites and middle eastern)

  3. Gold rush happened: lots of money involved

  • the settlers knew they wanted this place

  • enslaved many africans for mining work (or treated them so)

  • rallied to make racism legal

  1. The africans tried to make their own political parties and stand up for themselves

  2. The afrikaners (dutch-africans) joined up against the africans

  3. apartheid was voted in (they only let whites vote)

  4. apartheid ruled for many years, segregation (almost communistic when it came to media control, etc)

  5. United Nations voted in policy agains apartheid b/c of thier brutality

  6. apartheid prime minister finally agreed (after global pressure) to let the black vote and they voted the apartheid out

  7. Major issues with media, similar to US post segregation era but like 10x worse

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What did the Media Charter do?*

addresses African National Congress (ANC) aims through a number of legal and regulatory changes

a mechanism that was created alongside the constitution that regulated the media

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What does journalistic professionalism refer to in the South African context?*

trying to be a true professional journalist while keeping in mind the state that south Africa is in

claim to rights of freedom of speech, editorial independence, and the importance of robust critique.

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What was the significance of news media diversity for Wasserman’s argument?*

Because for every African native perceptive there's three white perspectives. Mixed perspectives gives more true media

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How was the significance of news media diversity measured according to Wasserman? *

Ownership, how many shares of the media, who owns what, are editors and reporters diverse?

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What does the “public sphere” refers to?*

an area in social life where individuals can come together to freely discuss and identify societal problems, and through that discussion influence political action.

(richer debate with more pople)

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What does “indigenized ethics” of journalism refers to?*

ethics sets that have the bias of the indigenization culture

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What are tabloid magazines?

a type of newspaper that has smaller pages, many pictures, and short reports: The tabloids often attract readers with sensational headlines.

focus on sensational topics, entertainment news, and the supernatural.

flouting conventional norms like objectivity, neutrality, and truth-telling through their sensationalist, opin-ionated, and seemingly far-fetched stories

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Why did tabloid magazines proliferate after market opening?*

because they were able to reach most of the people since the internet isn't widespread

They spoke to a readership market that had until that time been neglected by the postapartheid commercial press

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What are the BRICS and what brings them together?

the rise of emerging markets around the world (modernization) (like NATO)

  • trade

  • investment

  • legal systems

Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (intergovernmental military alliance)

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What is the significance is of Chinese participation in South African news and media outlets?

These changes to the (South) African media landscape are ripple effects from a larger geopolitical shift

A ton of Chinese investment in South Africa has led to a large Chinese soft power media presence

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Soft Power

getting others to want the outcomes you want – co-opts people rather than coerces them.

(media can use this type of power) (globalization)

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Why does Wasserman thinks his approach to global media studies is valid?

Global media studies have been prejudiced to the northern hemisphere

the last chapter crtitsiing media studies andglobal media studies for being prejuduice agaunts north hemis

critical global media studies

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