MGMT 340 - Chapter 7 Lecture Notes

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Motivated employees w/ high emotional attatchment

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1

Motivated employees w/ high emotional attatchment

  • Fewer days off

  • Less likely to leave

  • Less work-related accidents

  • Less quality defects

  • More productive

  • Increase in overall profitability

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2

Intensity

  • How hard a person tries

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3

Direction

  • Where a person puts effort

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4

Perisstnece

Maintaining effort in face of obstacles & set backs

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5

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

  • Must complete previous need to move up to next level

  • Satisfied need no longer serves as a motivator

  • Develop ways to determine what employee needs

<ul><li><p>Must complete previous need to move up to next level</p></li><li><p>Satisfied need no longer serves as a motivator</p></li><li><p>Develop ways to determine what employee needs</p></li></ul>
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6

Two-Factor Theory

Motivators and Hygiene Factors

<p>Motivators and Hygiene Factors</p>
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7

Motivators (Intrinsic / Internal)

  • Opportunity for promotions

  • Opportunity for growth

  • Recognition

  • Responsibility

  • Achievement

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8

Hygiene Factors (External)

  • Supervision

  • Pay

  • Company Policies

  • Physical work conditions

  • Relationship with others

  • Job security

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9

McClelland's Theory of Needs

  • Need for Achievement

    • Drive to excel, meet goals

  • Need for Power

    • Influence behavior of others

  • Need for Affiliation

    • Friendly & close interpersonal relationships

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10

If you're high on need for power, you:

  • Enjoy supervisory, management, & leadership positions

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11

If you're high on need for affiliation, you:

  • Perform well in helping professions and working in groups (nursing, physical therapy, etc.)

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12

If you're high on need for achievement, you:

  • motivated by sense of accomplishment, like stretch goals or feedback on progress

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13

Goal-Setting Theory

  • SMART (Specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, timely) goals

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14

Management by Objectives (MBO)

  • Specific Goals

  • Participation in development

  • Set time line

  • Performance feedback

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15

Contingency Variables in Application

  • Group v.s. individual goals

  • Individualistic vs collectivistic cultures

  • Assigned goals or collaboratively set goals

  • High power distance vs low power distance cultures

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16

Self Efficacy Theory

  • Belief in your capacity to successfully perform a task

  • enactive self-mastery, role-modeling, verbal/social persuasion, physiological cues

<ul><li><p>Belief in your capacity to successfully perform a task</p></li><li><p>enactive self-mastery, role-modeling, verbal/social persuasion, physiological cues</p></li></ul>
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17

Enactive self-mastery

Failure or success of actual performance

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18

Role-Modeling

Vicarious experiences by observing or visualization

  • Youtube tutorials

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19

Verbal/Social Persuasion

  • Pep talks

    • positive self talk

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20

Physiological Cues

  • Low when you feel confident

  • Signs of distress

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21

Reinforcement Theory

  • Based on experiments by B.F. Skinner

    • Behavior is a function of its consequences

      • Some repeat behaviors are rewarded

      • Reduce behaviors by punishment

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Positive Reinforcement

Something added to encourage behavior

  • ex. Congratulating employee after presentation

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Negative Reinforcement

Something removed to discourage behavior

  • ex. Someone late to office & reprimand every day, but when on time --> remove reprimand

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Reinforcement does what to behavior

  • Strengthens behavior

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Punishment does what to behavior

  • Weakens behavior

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26

Extinctinon does what to behavior

  • Eliminates behavior

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Fixed, Ratio Reinforcement

  • Completion of a constant number of responses

  • works best for new behaviors

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Fixed, Interval Reinforcement

Reinforces 1st response after a constant amount of time

    • works best for new behaviors

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29

Variable, Ratio Reinforcement

Completion of a changing number of responses

  • most resistant to extinction

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30

Variable, Interval Reinforcement

Reinforces the 1st response after a changing amount of time

    • most resistant to extinction

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31

Inequity

  • over-rewarded or under-rewarded

  • to eliminate inequities:

    • change inputs / outcomes

    • change perceptions of self / others

    • choose different referent

    • leave

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32

Distributive Justice

Perceived fairness of outcomes/rewards received

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33

Procedural Justice

perceived fairness of process used to distribute rewards

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34

Interactional Justice

  • Whether employees are provided w/ truthful info & treated with dignity + respect

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35

Expectancy Theory

Effort --> Performance --> Reward

<p>Effort --&gt; Performance --&gt; Reward</p>
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