Chapter 11 Cellular Communication

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41 Terms
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Paracrine

signaling cell acts on nearby target cells by secreting molecules of local regulator

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Local regulator

chemical signals that influence cells in vicinity

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Autocrine

signal to receptor in own body

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Endocrine

specialized endocrine cells secrete hormones into blood stream to act on target cells at distant body site

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Neurotransmitter

a signaling molecule that is released across the synapse to a receptor

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Synaptic

nerve cells releases neurotransmitters molecules into synapse

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Synapse

junction between 2 neurons

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Juxtacrine

signaling cells act on target cell that is in physical contact with each other (neighboring cells)

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3 steps of cellular communication

reception, transduction, and response

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Reception

target cell's detection of a signaling cell molecule coming from outside the molecule

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Transduction

converts signal to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response

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Response

transduced signal triggers specific cellular response

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Ligand

smaller molecule that binds with a larger molecule

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Receptor tyrosine kinase

membrane receptors that attach phosphates to tyrosine dimer and can trigger multiple signal transduction pathways at once

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G protein-coupled receptors

cell surface transmembrane receptors that work with the help of a G protein to transport signals across the membrane

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G protein

bind GTP or GDP to GPCR to activate or inactivate receptor

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Ligand-gated ion channel

signal molecule opens up gate letting ions transport into the cell

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Ca+

high concentration in ER and is released by IP3

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cAMP

carries signal initiated by epinephrine from plasma membrane of liver or muscle cell into cell's interior to initiate the required action

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Adenyl cyclase

converts ATP to cAMP in response to extracellular signal which then cAMP broadcasts signal to the whole interior of the cell

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Phosphodiesterase

converts cAMP to AMP which stops the extracellular signal

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Mating factors

a and alpha secrete specific factor that only binds to receptor on other's cell

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Yeast signal transduction pathways

cell finds and contacts partner by detecting direction of pheromone source and polarizing growth towards it

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Intracellular receptors

found in cytoplasm or nucleus of target cells

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What can pass through the membrane easily through diffusion?

small or hydrophobic chemical messengers

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Hydrophobic messengers

steroid and thyroid hormones

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Hormone-receptor complex

turns on or off particular genes

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Signal amplification

enzyme cascades amplify cell's response to signal

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water soluble ligand signaling molecules

bind to specific site on receptor proteins that span plasma membrane

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lipid soluble ligand signaling molecules

cross the cell membrane and bind with intracellular molecules (slower rate but longer lasting response)

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Benefits of transduction multiple step pathway

signal amplification and fine-tuning

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Fine-tuning

different proteins allow cells to detect and respond to different signals and same signal can have different effects in cells leading to multiple pathways

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Protein kinases

transfer phosphates from ATP to protein (phosphorylation) which activates molecule

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Phosphatases

removes phosphate from protein which deactivates molecule

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Membrane proteins

GPCR, receptor tyrosine kinase, and ion channel receptors

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Phosphorylation

transfers phosphates from ATP to another molecule

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Scaffolding proteins

large relay protein with other relay proteins attached which increases signal transduction efficiency (power strip)

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C. elegans model

Ced-9 inhibits Ced-4, with signal Ced-9 is inhibited and Ced-4 is active which activates Ced-3, Ced-3 is the caspase (controls cell suicide)

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Apoptosis

programmed cell death which cells are chopped up, packaged into vesicles, and are digested by scavenger cells

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Apoptosis signal

death signal can be received inside or outside the cell

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Phosphorylation cascade

continuous activation of protein kinase until specific protein is reached, which send cellular response (Christmas tree)

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