IB World Religions vocab (Buddhism, Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Daoism)

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Nirvana

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103 Terms

1

Nirvana

enlightenment

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2

Arahat

enlightened person (Buddhism)

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3

karma

intentional actions leading to rebirth

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4

samsara

cycle of death and rebirth

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5

maya

illusion (of ego, of world, etc)

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6

sangha

monastic and lay buddhist community

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7

dharma

teachings of buddha; the “truth”

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8

karuna

compassion

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9

Sila

ethical conduct

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10

panna/prajna

wisdom; ability to understand the three characteristics if all things

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11

Tanha/Trishna

thirst/desire/longing/greed either physically or mentally

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12

Anicca/Anitya

the doctrine of impermanence (nothing lasts)

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13

Anatta

lack of permanent self

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14

Boddhisattva

enlightened being who strives for the enlightenment of others

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15

the noble eightfold path

consists of eight practices: right view, right resolve, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right samadhi

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16

the four noble truths

the truth of suffering (Dukkha), the truth of the origin of suffering ( samudiya), the truth of the cessation of suffering (nirodha), the truth of the path to the cessation of suffering (magga).

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17

Agape

the fatherly love of God for humans, and human reciprocal love for God

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18

Apostle

the disciples of Jesus recognized as leaders of the early church, Paul is not a disciple but is considered an apostle

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19

Atonement

forgiving or pardoning of sin through death by crucifixion of Jesus Christ.

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20

Baptism

Christian sacrament of initiation in which new birth into the Christiaan community by water

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21

Catechism

manual lesson book of Christian instruction, containing essential Christian teachings for new Christians

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22

church

the organized and gathered religious community

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23

Communion/ Eucharist

central rite in Christian community where the faithful partake as a community in the sanctified bread and wine; giving thanks to god

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24

confession

admission and acknowledgement of sin

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25

covenant

mutual promise or compact. Christ constitutes a new covenant of God made with the followers of Jesus.

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26

Gospel

refers to the central message of Christianity; the good news of Christ’s life and message of redemption. Tell the story of the new testament

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27

Grace

God’s love for humanity and the means to salvation through faith in Jesus; the spontaneous, unmerited gift of the divine favor in the salvation of sinners, and the divine influence operating in individuals.

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28

icon

is a painted or mosaic image of a Christian figure used in the liturgy, prayer and theology.

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29

incarnation

central doctrine that God become flesh and become a man in the form of Jesus Christ.

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30

Logos

the word of god incarnate as jesus

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31

mass

ritual that culminates in the celebration of eucharist

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32

the new testament

collection of a body of writing accepted as authoritative: the four gospels, the book of acts, the letters of Paul, several other letters or epistles, the book of revelation.

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33

Nicene Creed

Affirms the trinity

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34

Paul

early Jewish convert, apostle to the gentiles. some thirteen letters of Paul to his early churches have become part of the scriptures known as the New Testament

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35

Pslam

king David’s book of songs and prayer

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36

Reconciliation

uniting believers with god through the sacrifice of Jesus

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37

Redemption

Jesus Christ as redeemer through his death on the cross

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38

Repentance

recognition of the need to be saved from sin

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39

Resurrection

means rising to life from the dead, rising to life of Jesus Christ after his death by crucifixion, signaling the expected resurrection of all who have died

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40

salvation

the saving of human beings from sin and its consequences.

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41

sacrament

outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace (eucharist/baptism)

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42

Sin

an evil human act, which violates the rational nature of man as well as god’s nature and his eternal law.

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43

Trinity

three natures: father, son, holy spirit

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44

Talmud

compendium of many texts, a comprehensive legal code, including rabbinic disputation and other extra-legal material.

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45

Tanakh

Hebrew bible, including Torah, Nevi’im, and Ketuvim

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46

Tefillin

small black leather boxes containing verses of the Torah that Orthodox jews bind during prayer.

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47

Yetzer Hatov

good impulse

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48

Yetzer Hara

evil impulse. selfish desire for satisfaction of personal needs, leading to evil

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49

Bar(Bat) Mitzvah

coming of age ceremony symbolizing the new obligation to fully observe the commandments.

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50

Abraham

the patriarch, father of the lineage of faith by Jewish, Christian, and Islamic traditions

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51

Hanukkah

eight day Jewish holiday celebrating the rededication of the temple in Jerusalem after it was reclaimed from the Greeks.

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52

High Holy Days

Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, beginning with Rosh Hashanah (new year) and following ten days later with Yom Kippur. constitutes a period do judgment and repentance, forgiveness and spiritual renewal.

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53

Halakhah

Jewish law

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54

Kabbalah

the jewish mystical tradition

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55

Kedushah

holiness, or sanctification

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56

Kippah/Yarmulke

a head covering, a skull cap, worn by Jewish men for worship, study, or at all times.

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57

Kosher

refers to food that is permissible to eat under Jewish dietary laws (kashrut)

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58

Mishnah

a written compilation of the oral torah, also believed to be revealed at Sinai

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59

Mitzvah

“commandment” (613 commandments)

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60

Akhirah

Afterlife

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61

Akhlaq

denotes a believer’s faith in the metaphysical aspects of Islam/ belief in the six articles of faith

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62

Ibadah

refers to the duties of worship to God according to the law

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63

Islam

“submission”

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64

Jihad

‘struggle”. The greater involves struggling against evil within oneself while the lesser involves working against injustice/ internal struggle.

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65

Kufr

disbelief, appears in the Quran 482 times, refusal to appreciate the benefits that God has bestowed

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66

Niyaah

“Intention”

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67

Risalah

“prophethood” and represents the various ways Allah communicates with humanity

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68

Shirk

the sin of idolatry or polytheism

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69

Tawhid

“oneness/ unity”, there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet.

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70

Ummah

community

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71

Yawm al-Din

The day of judgement

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72

Al-Qadr

Predestination of the will of Allah

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73

Iman

faith in god

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74

Ibadah

worship

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75

Shahada

declaration of faith

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76

Salat

ritual prayer

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77

Zakat

alms-giving

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78

Sawm

fasting

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79

Hajj

pilgrimage to Mecca

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80

Id al- Fitr, and Id al-Adha

festival of sacrafice

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81

Halal/ Haram

food and dietary laws, what IS and ISN’T allowed

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82

Hadiths

sayings and deeds of the prophet Muhammed and his companions

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83

Hijra

Muhammed’s journey from Mecca to Medina.

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84

Tao (Dao)

the way or path. the absolute principle underlying the universe, combing within itself the principles of yin and yang and signifying the way, or code of behavior in harmony with the natural order

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85

De

inherent character, inner power, integrity and moral character

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86

Gui Sprits

the spirits of people who committed sins out of greed when they were alive, have been condemned to suffer in hunger after death.

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87

The eight immortals

group of immortals in Chinese mythology, revered by Taoists and are also a popular element in secular Chinese culture.

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88

Li

underlying reason and order of nature as reflected in its organic forms

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89

Pu

state of purity before the arising of concepttual distinctions

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90

Shen spirits

the internal spirit, part of the three treasures

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91

Wu Wei

inaction

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92

Wu Xing

five-fold conceptual theme to explain the nature of the world

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93

Xi’an

Daoist immortals and perfected individuals, enlightened person spiritually and immortal.

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94

Laozi

founder of Daoism, recommended retreat from society into nature, you should seek to become attuned with Dao

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95

Feng Shui

the way or path, study of yin and yang

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96

Dao de Jing

foundational book of the teachings of Daoism, attributed to Laozi.

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97

Qingong

form of gentle exercise composed of repeated movements

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98

Falun Dafa

dharma wheel practice or law, combines meditation and qigong exercises with moral philosophy.

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99

Ancestor Veneration

veneration of the dead or ancestor reverence is based on the beliefs that family have a continued existence and may possess the ability to influence the fortune of the living

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100

Fu

returning to one’s roots

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