Bio test vocab

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Active transport

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Biology

31 Terms

1

Active transport

the process of moving molecules across a cellular membrane through the use of cellular energy.

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2

ATP

is an organic compound that provides energy to drive many processes in living cells

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3

Concentration gradient

occurs when the concentration of particles is higher in one area than another

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4

Diffusion

the net movement of anything generally from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.

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5

Endocytosis

is the process by which cells take in substances from outside of the cell by engulfing them in a vesicle

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6

Equilibrium

The condition in which all acting influences are balanced or canceled by equal opposing forces, resulting in a stable system

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7

Exocytosis

a process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane

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8

Facilitated Diffusion

is the process of spontaneous passive transport of molecules or ions across a biological membrane via specific transmembrane integral proteins

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9

Flaccid

a plant cell in an isotonic solution such that the plasma membrane is not pressed tightly against the cell wall

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10

Homeostasis

state of steady internal, physical, and chemical conditions maintained by living systems

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11

Hydrophillic

water loving

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12

Hydrophobic

water fearing

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13

Hypertonic

indicates the cells concentration of solute is higher outside the cell

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14

Hypotonic

indicates a higher concentration of solute inside the cell

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15

Isotonic

indicates that the concentration is the same on both sides

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16

Ligand

a molecule that binds to another molecule called a receptor to send signals within or between cells

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17

Osmosis

the net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane

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18

Lysed

the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic mechanisms that compromise its integrity

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19

Passive Transport

a type of membrane transport that does not require energy to move substances across cell membranes

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20

Phagocytosis

the process by which a cell uses its plasma membrane to engulf a large particle

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21

Pinocytosis

the engulfment of liquid into a cell by the budding of small vesicles from the cell membrane.

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22

Plasmolyzed

the process in which cells lose water in a hypertonic solution

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23

Receptor-mediated Endocytosis

where the receptors in a receptor-coated pit interact with a specific protein, initiating formation of a vesicle

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24

Sodium-potassium Pump

an enzyme found in the membrane of all animal cells. It performs several functions in cell physiology

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25

Solute

the minor component in a solution, dissolved in the solvent.

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26

Solution

a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances

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27

Selectively permeable

a membrane that allows only some substances and molecules to pass into or leave the cell

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28

Solvent

a substance that dissolves a solute

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29

Tonicity

a measure of the effective osmotic pressure gradient; the water potential of two solutions separated by a partially-permeable cell membrane

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30

Transport Protein

proteins that transport substances across biological membranes

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31

Turgid

cells or tissues that are swollen from water uptake

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