Chap 5.2: Digestive system ( vocabulary)

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Absorption - sự hấp thụ

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41 Terms

1

Absorption - sự hấp thụ

passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream

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amino acids

small building blocks of proteins (like links in a chain), released when proteins are digested

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3

Amylase

enzyme secreted by the pancreas and salivary glands to digest starch

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4

anus - hậu môn

terminal end or opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body

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5

Appendix - ruột thừa

blind pouch hanging from the cecum

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6

Bile - mật

a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder

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7

Bilirubin

pigment released by the liver in bile

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8

bowel

intestine

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9

canine teeth - răng nanh

pointed, dog-like teeth next to the incisors; also called cuspids or eyeteeth

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10

cecum -manh trành

first part of the large intestine

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11

Colon - đại tràng

portion of the large intestine consisting of the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid segments

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12

common bile duct (CBD) - ống dẫn mật

Carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. Also called the choledochus.

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13

defecation - đại tiện

elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the anus

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14

deglutition - nuốt

swallowing

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15

Dentin - ngà răng

Primary material found in teeth. It is covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root.

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16

Digestion

Breakdown of food substances into simpler forms that can be absorbed and used

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17

duodenum - tá tràng

first part of the small intestine, 12 inches long

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elimination - loại bỏ

act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible materials as feces

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19

emulsification - sự nhũ hoá

physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat

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20

enamel - men răng

hard, outermost layer of a tooth

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21

Enzyme

chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances

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22

Esophagus

Tube connecting the mouth to the stomach

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23

fatty acids

Substances produced when fats are digested. Fatty acids are a category of lipids.

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24

feces

solid wastes; stool

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25

Gallbladder

A muscular sac attached to the liver that secretes bile and stores it until needed for digestion

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26

Glucose

A simple sugar that is an important source of energy.

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27

Glycogen

starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells

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28

hydrochloric acid

substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food

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29

ileum - hồi tràng

third part of the small intestine

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30

Incisor - răng cửa

any one of four front teeth in the dental arch

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31

Insulin

A hormone produced by the pancreas or taken as a medication by many diabetics.

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jejunum - hỗng tràng

second part of the small intestine

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33

Lipase

pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats

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34

liver

A large solid organ that lies in the right upper quadrant immediately below the diaphragm; it produces bile, stores glucose for immediate use by the body, and produces many substances that help regulate immune responses.

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lower esophageal sphincter (LES) - cơ vòng thực quản dưới

Ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach. Also called cardiac sphincter.

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36

Mastication - nhai

chewing

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37

molar teeth - răng hàm

sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch. Premolar teeth

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38

palate - vòm miệng

roof of the mouth

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39

Pancreas

An organs in the abdominal cavity with two roles. The first is an exocrine role: to produce digestive enzymes and bicarbonate, which are delivered to the small intestine via the pancreatic duct. The second is an endocrine role: to secrete insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream to help regulate blood glucose levels.

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40

papillae - nhú nhỏ trên lưỡi

Small elevations on the tongue. A papilla is a nipple-like elevation.

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parotid gland - tuyến mang tai

salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear

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