AP Gov Unit 1 Vocab

studied byStudied by 32 People
5.0(2)
get a hint
hint

amending process

1/88

Tags & Description

Studying Progress

New cards
88
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
88 Terms
New cards

amending process

The way in which additions or changes in the Constitution are made. It has been made difficult to prevent changes for unimportant reasons; Article V. Stage 1 - 2/3 House and Senate or 2/3 vote at convention; Stage 2 - 3/4 state legislatures or votes at state ratifying convention

New cards
New cards

anarchy

the absence of any form of government or political authoirty

New cards
New cards

Anti-Federalist

An individual who opposed the ratification of the new Constitution in 1787; opposed to a strong central government.

New cards
New cards

Articles of Confederation

A weak constitution that governed America during the Revolutionary War; political power belonged largely to state governments, with weaker nat'l government

New cards
New cards

aristocracy

rule by the "best;" in reality, rule by an upper class

New cards
New cards

Article I

defines the basic setup and operation of Congress.

New cards
New cards

Article II

lays out the requirements to assume the presidency and the executive's role.

New cards
New cards

Article III

displays the need for national courts and defines the judicial branch

New cards
New cards

Article IV

defines the relations among the states and it requires that states cannot play favorites with their own citizens or exclude outsiders from basic privileges and immunities.

New cards
New cards

Article V

alters and amends the constitution

New cards
New cards

Article VI

establishes national supremacy and states that no religious test shall be required for a person to take government office.

New cards
New cards

Article VII

declares that the Constitution shall become the official law of the ratifying states when nine states ratified the document

New cards
New cards

authoritarianism

a type of regime in which only the government is fully controlled by the ruler. Social and economic institutions exist that are not under the government's control

New cards
New cards

bicameral legislature

a legislature made up of two parts, called chambers. U.S. Congress - House of Representatives and the Senate

New cards
New cards

Bill of Attainder

a law declaining an act illegal without a judicial trial

New cards
New cards

Bill of Rights

the first ten amendments to the U.S. Consitution, which largely guarantee specific rights and liberties

New cards
New cards

Brutus No.1

a commentary on the dangers of too large and too consolidated a gov't

New cards
New cards

capitalism

an economic system characterized by the private ownership of wealth-creating assets, free markets, and freedom of contract

New cards
New cards

central government

a form of government in which the national government has most of the power, while the states have little power

New cards
New cards

checks and balances

A major principle of the American system of government whereby each branch of the government can check the actions of the others.

New cards
New cards

confederation

A political system in which states or regional governments retain ultimate authority except for those powers they expressly delegate to a central government.

New cards
New cards

conservativism

A set of beliefs that includes a limited role for the national government in helping individuals, support for traditional values and lifestyles, and a cautious response to change.

New cards
New cards

Declaration of Independence

document approved by representatives of the American Colonies in 1776 that states their grievances against the monarchy and declared their independence

New cards
New cards

democracy

A system of government in which political authority is vested in the people.

New cards
New cards

democratic republic

A republic in which representatives elected by the people make and enforce laws and policies.

New cards
New cards

direct democracy

a system of government in which political decisions are made by the people directly, rather than by their elected representatives; probably attained most easily in small political communities

New cards
New cards

divine right of kings

a political and religious doctrine that asserts a monarchy's legitimacy is conferred directly by God as such a king is not subject to any earthly authority, including his people or the church

New cards
New cards

electoral college

A group of persons called electors selected by the voters in each state and the District of Columbia; this group officially elects the president and vice president of the United States. The number of electors in each state is equal to the number of each state's representatives in both chambers of Congress.

New cards
New cards

elite democracy (elitism)

theory of American democracy contending that an upper-class elite holds the power and makes policy regardless of the formal governmental organization

New cards
New cards

eminent domain

A power set forth in the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that allows government to take private property for public use under the condition that just compensation is offered to the landowner.

New cards
New cards

equality

As a political value, the idea that all people are of equal worth.

New cards
New cards

factions

A group or bloc in a legislature or political party acting in pursuit of some special interest or position.

New cards
New cards

Federal System

a system of government in which power is divided between a central government and regional, or subdivisional, governments. Each level must have some domain in which its policies are dominant and some genuine political or constitutional guarantee of its authority

New cards
New cards

Federalist #10

an article that speaks of interest groups and factions in government, whether a majority or minority is adverse to other citizens' rights. it explains how no plan for government can eliminate factions, and shares the need to limit factions

New cards
New cards

Federalist

the name given to one who was in favor of the adoption of the U.S. Consitution and the creation of a federal union with a strong central government

New cards
New cards

Federalist #51

points to the separation of powers outlined in the constitution as a guard against tyranny

New cards
New cards

government

The preeminent institution in which decisions are made that resolve conflicts or allocate benefits and privileges. It is unique because it has the ultimate authority within society.

New cards
New cards

the "Grand Committee"

a committee at the Constitutional Convention that worked out the compromise on representation; made up of one delegate from each of the states represented at the convention

New cards
New cards

Great Compromise

the compromise between the New Jersery and Virginia plans that created one chamber of the Congress based on population and one chamber representing each state equally; also called the Connecticut Compromise

New cards
New cards

hyperpluralism

a theory of american democracy contending that groups are so strong that gov't which gives into many groups is thereby weakened

New cards
New cards

ideology (political ideology)

A comprehensive set of beliefs about the nature of people and about the role of an institution or government.

New cards
New cards

impeachment

An action by the House of Representatives to accuse the president, vice president, or other civil officers of the United States of committing "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."

New cards
New cards

initiative

A procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment.

New cards
New cards

institution

An ongoing organization that performs certain functions for society.

New cards
New cards

John Locke

British philosopher, argued in Second Treatise of Civil Gov't that natural law is the law of God and that this law is acknowledged through human sense and reason. people were born free and equal. people are obligated to rebel when rule of kings did not respect the consent of the governed.

New cards
New cards

legislature

A governmental body primarily responsible for the making of laws.

New cards
New cards

liberalism

A set of beliefs that includes the advocacy of positive government action to improve the welfare of individuals, support for civil rights, and tolerance for political and social change.

New cards
New cards

libertarianism

A political ideology based on skepticism or opposition toward almost all government activities.

New cards
New cards

liberty

The greatest freedom of individuals that is consistent with the freedom of other individuals in the society.

New cards
New cards

limited government

The principle that the powers of government should be limited, usually by institutional checks.

New cards
New cards

linkage institutions

the political channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the policy agenda. In the US, include elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media

New cards
New cards

Madisonian Model

A structure of government proposed by James Madison in which the powers of the government are separated into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.

New cards
New cards

majority

more than 50 percent

New cards
New cards

majority rule

a basic principle of democracy asserting that the greatest number of citizens in any political unit shoud select officials and determine policy

New cards
New cards

majority rule w/ minority rights

the democratic principle that a gov't follows the preferences of the majority of voters but protects the interests of the minority; limitations to protect the minority rights especially with property ownership

New cards
New cards

minority

less than half

New cards
New cards

natural rights

Rights held to be inherent in natural law, not dependent on governments. John Locke stated that natural law, being superior to human law, specifies certain rights of "life, liberty, and property." These rights, altered to become "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness," are asserted in the Declaration of Independence.

New cards
New cards

New Jersey Plan

a framework for the Constitution proposed by a group of small states. Its key points were a one-house legislature w/ one vote for each state, a Congress w/ the ability to raise revenue, and a Supreme Court w/ members appointed for life

New cards
New cards

oligarchy

rule by the few in their own interests

New cards
New cards

participatory democracy

depends on the direct participation of many, if not most, people in a society, not only in government but in public life; emphasizes broad involvement of citizens in politics

New cards
New cards

pluralist democracy

people w/ widely varying interests find others who share their interests and organize and unit into nongovernmental groups to exert influence on political decision making.

New cards
New cards

political culture

the set of ideals, values, and ways of thinking about government and politics that is shared by all citizens

New cards
New cards

political participation

all the activities used by citizens to influence the selection of political leaders or the policies they pursue. the most common means is voting; other means include protest and civil obedience.

New cards
New cards

political socialization

The process through which individuals learn a set of political attitudes and form opinions about social issues. Families and the educational system are two of the most important forces in the political socialization process.

New cards
New cards

politics

the process of resolving conflicting and deciding "who gets what, when, and how." More specifically, a struggle over power or influence within organizations or informal groups that can grant of withhold benefits or privileges

New cards
New cards

popular sovereignty

the notion that the ultimate authority in society rests with the people

New cards
New cards

preamble

Introduction to the Constitution; explains the document's purpose and underlying philosophy

New cards
New cards

ratification

Formal approval

New cards
New cards

recall

A procedure allowing the people to vote to dismiss an elected official from state office before his or her term has expired.

New cards
New cards

referendum

An electoral device whereby legislative or constitutional measures are referred by the legislature to the voters for approval or disapproval.

New cards
New cards

representation

The function of members of Congress as elected officials representing the views of their constituents.

New cards
New cards

representative assembly

A legislature composed of individuals who represent the population.

New cards
New cards

representative democracy

A form of government in which representatives elected by the people make and enforce laws and policies; may retain the monarchy in a ceremonial role.

New cards
New cards

republic

a form of government in which sovereignty rests with the people, as opposed to a king or monarch

New cards
New cards

seperation of powers

The principle of dividing governmental powers among different branches of government.

New cards
New cards

Slave Trade Compromise

Congress could not regulate or outlaw slavery or slave trade until 1808 (20 years after Consitution ratified)

New cards
New cards

social contract

A theory of politics that asserts that individuals form political communities by a process of mutual consent, giving up a measure of their individual liberty in order to gain the protection of government.

New cards
New cards

socialism

A political ideology based on strong support for economic and social equality. Socialists traditionally envisioned a society in which major businesses were taken over by the government or by employee cooperatives.

New cards
New cards

Supremacy Clause

the constitutional provision that makes the Consitution and federal laws superior to all conflicting states and local laws

New cards
New cards

Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS)

the pinnacle of the American judicial system. ensures uniformity in interpreting national laws, resolves conflicts among states, and maintains national supremacy in law. it has both original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction

New cards
New cards

Three-fifths Compromise

agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention stipulating that each slave was to be counted as 3/5s of a person for purposes of determining population for representation in the US House of Representatives

New cards
New cards

tyranny of the majority

The potential of a majority to monopolize power for its own gain to the detriment of minority rights and interests.

New cards
New cards

universal suffrage

the rights of all adults to vote for their representative

New cards
New cards

unicameral legislature

a legislature with only one legislative chamber, as opposed to a bicameral legislature, such as the US Congress

New cards