Unit 3 ( Immunity and Hypersenitvites)

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Immunity

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40 Terms

1

Immunity

  • 2 types

    • Innate and adaptive

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Innate

  • Type of immunity

    • Non-specific

      • Attacks everything

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3

Adaptive

  • Type of immunity

    • Specific; T and B cells

      • Have to make an individual T and B cell to every individual pathogen the body encounters

    • Goal: creates memory cells

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4

1st Tier

  • Apart of innate immunity

    • Skin and mucous membranes

      • Acidity, salt keratin, oil (skin)

      • Lysozyme in tears

      • Hydrochloric acid in stomach

    • Not very good; penetrated very easily

      • EX: Cuts

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5

2nd Tier

  • Part of innate immunity

    • Fever

    • Inflammation

    • Complement

    • Phagocytosis

    • Natural killer cells

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Fever

  • 2nd tier of innate

    • Universal sign of infection; can get it with everything

      • Other things can give this; certain cancers

    • Body’s attempt to raise core body temperature so microorganisms can’t grow

    • Not always necessary to treat

      • Unless immunocompromised

        • Antipyretics used to treat (Tylenol)

    • Seizure threshold: above 105 adults, about 103 (kids 2 and younger)

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Inflammation

  • Apart of 2nd tier of innate

    • Can get with everything

    • Goal is to heal

      • Immunovascular response to tissue injury

        • Opening blood vessels and bringing in WBCs

    • This chronically is not good

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8

Complement

  • Apart of 2nd tier of innate

  • Cascade of proteins

    • One protein making another and another…creates a membrane attack complex

      • Puncture hole, fill with fluid, causes to lyse

  • Two types:

    • Classical

    • Alternative

  • Attracts white blood cells

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Classical

  • Complement in the adaptive immunity

    • B cells will bring complement to area to help kill

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10

Alternative

  • Complement in the innate immunity

    • Random compliments flowing in the body killing things at random

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Phagocytosis

  • Apart of 2nd tier of innate

    • Neutrophils, Macrophages, Dendritic

      • Only dendritic and macrophages are antigen presenters

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Natural killer cells

  • Apart of 2nd tier of innate

    • Target viruses and cancer cells; things inside the cell, kill similar to cytotoxic T-cells

      • Creates hole, fill with fluid, causes apoptosis

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White Blood Cells

  • 2Never Let My Engine Blow

    • Neturophils: phagocytes (60%)

    • Lymphocytes: T and B cells (30 %)

    • Macrophages: Monocytes (8%)

    • Eosinophils: parasitic worm infection (Helmond) (2%)

    • Basophiles: Allergies: Histamine (0%)

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Humoral

  • Antibody-mediated

    • B cell

  • Part of adaptive

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15

Cell-mediated

  • T cells

  • Macrophages in lungs chew up infected cell displayed

    • Activate:

      • MHC I and MHC II

  • Part of adaptive

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Red Bone Marrow

  • T and B cells made here

    • B cells stay here to mature

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17

Thymus

  • Where T cells go to mature

    • Learn self tolerance

      • Won’t attack own tissue

    • T regulatory cells

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18

Secondary Lymphatic Organs

  • Spleen and lymph nodes

    • Where T and B cells go after they mature

      • Naive: have not encountered antigen yet

  • Ex:

    • Infection in lungs; WBCs engulf (macrophage) the infected cell

      • Migrates to this place

      • Then presented on MHC molecule

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MHC

  • Major Histocompatibility Complex

    • Receptor sticks out of cell

    • T cells require antigen presentation

    • B cells latch on to antigen (B cell receptor)

      • Technically an antibody

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Clonal Selection

  • Activated B cell proliferates

    • Makes lots of copies

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21

Antibodies

  • IgM

  • IgG

  • IgA

  • IgE

  • IgD

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22

IgM

  • Antibody

    • 1st responder

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IgA

  • Antibody

    • Secretions

      • Sweat, milk, and tears

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IgG

  • Antibody

    • Most abundant

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IgE

  • Antibody

    • Allergies

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IgM vs. IgG

  • Second time exposed to pathogen, there is a huge IgG response because of memory cells

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How antibodies mark for destruction

  • Neutralization: block receptors

  • Opsonization: coat antigen with antibody; causes them to clump/stick together

  • Phagocytosis: antibodies recruit to come kill

  • Activate complement

  • Antibody-D: activate natural killer cells

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Antibody structure

  • Double Y

    • Big ones: Heavy chains

    • Small ones: Light chains

  • Variable region

    • Part that binds to antigen

      • changes

  • Constant region

    • Stays the same

      • Embedded in membranes

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MHC I

  • Cytotoxic T cells

  • CD8

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MHC II

  • Macrophages, dendritic cells

    • T Helper cells

    • CD4

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T Helper Cells

  • Help; activate:

    • Cytotoxic T cells, b cells

      • Secrete cytokines

      • Don’t kill

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Cytotoxic T cells

  • Activated by MHC I molecules

    • Seek out and destroy any virus that looks like that antigen

      • Created perforation, brings granzymes, causes apoptosis

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Immune Disorders

  • Born with lack of T cells

  • Born with lack of B cells

  • Born with lack of both

    • SCID: severe combined immunodeficiency disease

  • HIV: acquired; not born with

    • Invades T helper cells and kills them

    • immunocompromised

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Interferons

  • Part of Innate

    • Cytokines produced by many eukaryotic cells in response to intracellular infection

      • Two Types: Type I and Type II

    • Antiviral

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Vasodilation

  • Blood cells getting bigger

    • Swelling in inflammation

    • Ice: vasoconstriction

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Hypersensitivities

  • Immune system is attacking something that doesn’t need to be attacked

    • 4 Types

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Type 1 Hypersensitivity

  • Allergy

    • Body is making IgE antibodies, basophils; releases histamine (cytokine)

      • Histamine: causes vasodilation, bronchoconstriction

        • Swelling and redness; shortness of breath

    • Topical: Skin rash

    • Breathable: pollen

    • Injectants: anything that is injected, and bees; usually life-threatening

    • Ingestants: anything you can ingest; nuts

    • Anaphylaxes: epi-fast acting

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Type 2 Hypersensitvity

  • Cytotoxic

    • Antigen and antibody binding

      • A blood; can’t get B blood

        • Hemolytic Blastosis Fatalis

          • A neg; baby A pos

      • Grave’s Disease (Hyperthyroidism)

      • Myasthenia Gravis (Muscular joints)

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Type 3 Hypersensitvity

  • Immune Complex

    • Happens to partial antigen

      • Floats around in blood

      • Going to deposit somewhere in tissue

    • Lupus and RA

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Type 4 Hypersensitvity

  • Delayed hypersensitvity

    • Exposed and then reacts days later

    • Cytotoxic T cells

    • Poison Ivy; TB skin test

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