AP BIO FINAL

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What is the classification system?

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70 Terms

1

What is the classification system?

domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species

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2

What are the properties of water?

surface tension, adhesion/cohesion, polarity, capillary action, high specific heat, density (997kg/m)

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3

What are macromolecules?

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

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4

What are monomers and polymers?

monomers- a chemical subunit

polymers- a chain of chemical subunits

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5

What is the most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized protein that will be secreted by a cell?

ER to Golgi to vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane

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6

Prokaryotes are classified as belonging to two different domains. What are the domains?

Bacteria and Archaea

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7

What are the protein folding structures?

primary- peptide bond

secondary- alpha helix and beta pleated sheet

tertiary- bonds between R groups (ionic, disulfide bridges, hydrophobic, and hydrogen bonds)

quaternary- multiple polypeptide chains

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8

Explain the characteristics of a cell in an isotonic environment.

A cell in a isotonic environment is one that is in an environment where it neither gains no loses water. Thus meaning the environment is neutral.

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9

What are the nitrogen bases for both DNA & RNA?

DNA: C,G,T,A

RNA: C,G,U,A

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10

In order for a protein to be an integral membrane protein it would have to be

amphipathic, with at least one hydrophobic region

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11

Water passes quickly through cell membranes because

it moves through aquaporins in the membrane

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12

What is diffusion?

It is a passive process in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.

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13

Which of the following is a characteristic feature of a carrier protein in a plasma membrane?

It exhibits a specificity for a particular type of molecule.

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14

The difference between pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis is that

pinocytosis is nonselective in the molecules it brings into the cell, whereas receptor-mediated endocytosis offers more selectivity.

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15

A form of endocytosis in which a one-celled organism takes in a large food particle

phagocytosis

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16

A cell secreting large molecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane

exocytosis

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17

A form of endocytosis that is specific for a substance in the extracellular fluid

receptor-mediated

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18

Water moving out of a plant cell causes the cell membrane to pull away from the cell wall, this is _____ .

plasmolysis

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19

Which term most precisely describes the cellular process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones?

catabolism

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20

Which term refers to the sum total of all  the chemical reactions that occur in an organism?

metabolism

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21

What is true for anabolic pathways?

They consume energy to build up polymers from monomers.

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22

Which of the following types of reactions would decrease the entropy within a cell?

anabolic reactions

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23

A chemical reaction that has a positive deltaG is best described as

endergonic

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24

The active site of an enzyme is the region that

is involved in the catalytic reaction of the enzyme (where the reaction takes place.).

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25

Allosteric enzyme regulation is usually associated with

an enzyme with more than one subunit

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26

Which of the following is a term that refers to a metabolic pathway that is switched off by the inhibitory binding of its end product to an enzyme that acts early in the pathway.

negative feedback

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27

What term refers to describe any case in which a protein's function at one site is affected by the binding of a regulatory molecule to a separate site.

allosteric regulation

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28

In plant cells in photosynthesis, the electron transport chain is located in the

thylakoid membrane

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29

In prokaryotes, the respiratory electron transport chain is located

plasma membrane

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30

Which process in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally whether oxygen is present or absent?

glycolysis

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31

Why is glycolysis described as having an investment phase and a payoff phase?

It uses stored ATP and then forms a net increase in ATP.

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32

Where does glycolysis occur?

cytosol

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33

Carbon dioxide is released during which of the following stages of cellular respiration?

oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle

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34

Which of the following produces the most ATP when glucose is completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water?

oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)

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35

Most carbon dioxide from catabolism is released during

the citric acid cycle

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36

What is the molecule that enters the citric acid cycle(Kreb's cycle)?

acetyl CoA

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37

Which process is anaerobic?

glycolysis

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38

Where is the lowest pH due to hydrogen ions found in the plant cell?

thylakoid space

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39

What is the primary function of the Calvin cycle?

synthesize simple sugars in the form of G3P molecules from carbon dioxide

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40

Which of the following does the Calvin cycle need to continue to run?

carbon dioxide, ATP, NADH, and Rubisco phosphate (RuBP)

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41

Which is NOT part of the nonspecific immune defense?

antibodies

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42

What white blood cell that recognizes a particular antigen will remain alive and will react rapidly if the antigen ever comes along again?

memory B cells

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43

Where do B cells mature?

bone marrow

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44

Which of the following are not part of the immune system?

red blood cells

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45

Antibodies are what macromolecule?

proteins

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46

What is responsible for humoral immunity?

B cells

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47

An antigen-presenting cell that is also part of innate immunity

macrophages

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48

Which cell specifically attacks a cell that contains a virus?

cytoxic T cells

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49

Where are most T and B cells found?

bone marrow

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50

What are two of the most common second messengers in transduction?

calcium ions and cAMP

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51

What is the resting potential of a neuron?

-70mV

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52

What is the threshold of the action potential of a neuron?

-55mV

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53

A neuron works because there is a membrane potential due to what?

Na+ and K+ ions

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54

REMEMBER

this :)

<p>this :)</p>
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55

What are two characteristics of a dendrite?

contains sensory endings and carries an electrical impulse toward the cell body

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56

What releases the neurotransmitter into the synapse?

the action potential opens voltage-gated channels that allow Ca++ across the membrane into the neuron

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57

What type of channel does the neurotransmitter bind to?

ligand-gated ion channel

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58

the ligand and the G-protein-couple receptor activate this

G protein

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59

Which of the following is characterized by a cell releasing a signal molecule into the environment, followed by a number of cells in the immediate vicinity responding?

paracrine signaling

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60

What organism would use quorum sensing?

prokaryotic cell

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61

Many signal transduction pathways use second messengers to

relay the message from the inside of the membrane throughout the cytoplasm

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62

What is a G protein?

a protein on the cytoplasmic side of a membrane that becomes activated by a receptor protein

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63
<p>What phase is this?</p>

What phase is this?

prophase

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64
<p>What phase is this?</p>

What phase is this?

metaphase

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65
<p>What phase is this?</p>

What phase is this?

telophase

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66
<p>What phase is this?</p>

What phase is this?

anaphase

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67

Name of chromosomes that have a replicated copy held together by a centromere.

sister chromatids

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68

All of the DNA of a cell is referred to as the

genome

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69

Normal cells that must be attached to a substratum like the extracellular matrix of a tissue.

anchorage dependency

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70

Human have 46 chromosomes. That number of chromosomes will be found

somatic cells

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