AMSCO Unit 4 Vocab KC 2

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Physical Geographic Boundaries


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AP Human Geography


AMSCO Unit 4 Vocab KC 2 FOR HGAP LHS 2022-2023

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48 Terms

Physical Geographic Boundaries

are natural barriers between areas such as oceans, deserts, and mountains. (The Missouri River divides Iowa and Nebraska, and the Himalayan Mountains separate India and China.)

Cultural Boundaries

divide people according to some cultural division, such as language, religion, or ethnicity. (In China, cuisine was once divided into two regions: wheat-based in the north and rice-based in the south.)

Antecedent Boundary

is type of boundary preceded the development of the cultural landscape. (boundaries, significant physical obstacles—such as oceans or mountains—possess a static aspect in that they feature a relatively unpopulated zone between populated areas.)

Subsequent Boundary

This boundary is typically created while the cultural landscape is evolving and is subject to change over time. These boundaries are characteristically ethnographic in nature


related to cultural phenomena (accommodate ethnic, religious, linguistic, or economic differences among groups.)

Superimposed Boundary

is type of boundary is drawn by outside powers and may have ignored existing cultural patterns.(the Berlin Conference paved the way for colonization of Africa or what Europeans regarded as "effective occupation" when around 80 percent of the continent was under traditional and local control.)

Landlocked States

without territory connected to an ocean. (Chad is a landlocked country | increased cost of importing and exporting goods through neighboring countries)

Relic Boundary

is is a boundary that has been abandoned for political purposes, but evidence ofit still exists on the landscape (Sometimes perseversed for historic purposes like the great wall of China)

Geometric Boundary

is a straight line or arc drawn by people that does not closely follow any physical feature. (The broder between Egypt and Sudan)

Cultural Consequent Boundary

A border that is drawn taking into account language, ethnicity, religion, or other cultural traits (The broder between India and Pakistan)

Physical Consequent Boundary

A division that uses already-existing natural features that divide a territory such as rivers, deserts, or mountains (The broder between Texas and mexico)

Open Boundary

Unguarded and people can cross it easily, with little or no political intervention. These borders only occur between countries that have maintained friendly relations with each other over long periods of time. (Like Most of Europe)

Militarized Boundary

is one that is heavily guarded and discourages crossing. While many of these borders only have a limited military presence, others are fortified, using a constructed barrier to prevent the flow of people. (Like USA and Mexico)

Defined Boundary

established by a legal document, such as a treaty, that divides one entity from another. (Like the boundaries of real estate)

Delimited Boundary

is drawn on a map by a cartographer to show the limits of a space.

Demarcated Boundary

Is one identified by physical objects placed on the landscape. (Like a sign or a set of fences/walls)

Definitional Boundary Dispute

occurs when two or more parties disagree over how to interpret the legal documents (boundary between Chile and Argentina.)

Locational Boundary Dispute

Also called territorial disputes, Boundary disputes that center on where a boundary should be, how it is delitnited (mapped), or deniarcate ( post-World War I boundary between Germany and Poland.)


A type of expansionism when one country seeks to annex territory where it has cultural ties to part of the population or historical claims to the land.

Operational Boundary Dispute

Also called a Functional dispute centers not on where a boundary is but how it functions. Disagreements can arise related to trade, transportation, or migration. (As refugees fled Syria and attempted to enter Europe during the 2011 civil war, Europeans viewed their national boundaries differently.)

Allocational Boundary Dispute

Also called a Resource Dispute, The extraction of subterranean resources extending on both sides of the boundary. (Iraq invaded Kuwait because it claimed that the Kuwaitis were drilling too many wells using directional drilling To get oil from Iraqs claims)

Administered Boundary

How a boundary will be maintained, how it will function, and what goods and people will be allowed to cross

Controlled Borders

allow some people and goods to traverse the border while denying entry to others.(United Kingdom left the EU creating a more controlled border between iteself and mainland Europe.)


The territories that are part ofa state, yet geographically separated from the main state by one or more countries. (Alaska is separated from the lower 48 United States)

Political Enclaves

Are states, territories or parts of a state or territory that are completely surrounded by the territory of another state. (San Marino and the Vatican City are completely engulfed by Italy)


A place located between two very different and contentious regions. These places are under consistent stress and may suffer instability or fragmentation due to external aggression. (Eastern Europe has historically been a shatterbelt between Western Europe and Russia)

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

Gives the contry laws to follow when defending there conutry

Territorial Sea

This area extends up to 12 nautical miles of sovereignty where commercial vessels may pass, but noncommercial vessels may be challenged. A nautical mile is equal to 1.15 land-measured miles.

Contiguous Zone

Coastal states have limited sovereignty for up to 24 nautical miles where they can enforce laws on customs, immigration, and sanitation.

Exclusive Economic Zone

Coastal states can explore, extract minerals, and manage natural resources up to 200 nautical miles. 4. High seas: Water beyond any country's EEZ that is open to all states.

High Seas

Water beyond any country's EEZ that is open to all states.

Small Island Developing State (SIDS)

controls nearly 30 percent of all oceans and seas (Are smaller than EEZ (Exclusive economic zone) )

Internal Boundaries

Are used at the subnational scale to divide countries into smaller units.(Like States, counties, cities, and local districts)

Electoral Geography

Using spatial thinking techniques and tools to analyze elections and voting patterns

Voting Districts

Internal boundaries that divide a country's electorate into subnational regions


People of a country who are eligible to vote, known as


a count of the population, every 10 years, to ensure the national congressional districts have approximately the same number of peopl


Changing the number of representatives granted to each state so it reflects the state's population


The action of redrawing district boundaries so that each district contains roughly the same number of people.


is the drawing of boundaries for political districts by the party in power to protect or increase its power.


A Type of Gerrymandering, Dispersing a group into several districts to prevent a majority


A Type of Gerrymandering, Combining like-minded voters into one district to prevent them from affecting elections in other districts


A Type of Gerrymandering, Diluting a minority-populated district with majority populations


A Type of Gerrymandering, Redrawing two districts in order to force two elected representatives of the same party to run against each other


A Type of Gerrymandering, Moving an area where an elected representative has support to an area where he or she does not have support

Federal State

Unites separate political entities into an overarching system

Unitary State

Most or all of the governing power is held by the national government.


The process of legally adding territory to a city.