personality psych exam 1

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Personality psychology

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135 Terms

1

Personality psychology

studies how personality originates, develops, and functions

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Personality

a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences their cognition, motivations, and behavior in various situations

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The study of personality

a scientific analysis of individual differences that help account for why and how people react uniquely to various situations

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Freud removed us from our pedestals and forced us to

examine the dark side of our nature

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Unconscious (freud)

The depository of hidden wishes, needs, and conflicts of which the person is unaware and filled with sexual and aggressive impulses, and unresolved issues

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Freud believes a great deal of our behavior is

unconsciously driven

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Free association

Therapeutic technique central to psychoanalysis in which the therapist encourages patients to report, without restriction, any thoughts that occur to them no matter how irrelevant, unimportant, or unpleasant

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Considered the fundamental roles in

psychoanalysis

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Ultimately, believed nothing we do is

accidental

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Resistance

Is psychoanalysis, when unwilling to disclose painful memories

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Freud's 3 Parts of Mental Life

conscious, preconscious, unconscious

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Conscious (freud)

The ideas and sensations of which we are aware

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Preconscious

Contains the experiences that are unconscious but that could be conscious easily

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Unconscious

Contains the experiences and memories of which we are not aware

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dreams

The royal road to the unconscious

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Dream analysis

Psychoanalytic technique used to probe the unconscious through interpretation of the patient's dream

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process of dream analysis

Analysis and interpretation of the symbols present in the manifest content in an attempt to discover that latent content or hidden meanings
belived symbol have menaings

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manifest content

the remembered story line of a dream

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latent content

according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream

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instincts

The driving forces in personality, govern behavior and motivate to seek gratification and homeostasis

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2 main instincts that motivate us

life and deaht instincts

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life instincts

Instinctive urges to preserve life include basic needs
ex: libido

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libido

Originally sexual instincts, later revised to psychic and pleasurable gratification of life instincts

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death instinct

Insitcs to return to a state of balance, free of painful struggles before death. As a result, comes aggression

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id

The pleasure principle

original aspect of personality, rooted biologically, consisting of unconscious sexual and aggressive instincts

Wants immediate gratification

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ego

Executive functioning of personality

Ains to balance the needs of the id and the extremes of the superego in appropriate and realistic ways

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superego

Strives for perfestions
Internalization of societal values instilled primarily by parents to teach right and wrong responses in a given situation results in satisfaction or guilt and shame
Where our consciousness come from

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Defense mechanisms

Protect ppl against pain and are universal reaction, all meant to keep anxiety at bay

maladaptive

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repression

Unconsciously banish painful memories from conscious

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supression

Active and conscious attempt to stop anxiety-provoking thoughts by simply not thinking about them (stores in the precocious)

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denial

Refusal to perceive an unpleasant event in reality

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Sublimation

Unconsciously redirect anger on substitute objects or ppl

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regression

movement from mature behavior to immature behavior

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Projection

Attributing our undesirable characteristics on to others

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Reaction formation

Convert undesirable characteristics to their opposites

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Rationalization (freud)

Justification of behavior through the use of plausible, but inaccurate, excuses

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Intellectualization

Dissociation between thoughts and feelings with elaborate rationale to explain unbearable pain

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Undoing

Performing an act to nullify or make amends for an undesirable one

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Freud believes personality develops biologically through a series of stages in which particular behavior occurs in each referred to as

Psychosexual development

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Personality develops in terms of an individual's attempts to come to grips with

key biological impulses

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stages of psychosexual development

Oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital

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Fixation

Defensive attachment to an earlier as a result of a traumatic experience in particular stages

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Oedipal complex; 

In the phallic stage, boys develop a sexual longing for their mother and sees their father as their rival

Results in the development of the superego

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Electra complex

In the phallic stage, penis envy causes love for their father because he has the desired object

Resulted in an inadequate superego

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Freud's three major assessment techniques included

Free association

Dream analysis

Transference

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transference

Characterized by ambivalence, attitudes of both affection and hostility, toward "parents; and are displaced onto the therapist

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Positive transference

Special affection towards the therapist usually develops first (praise, trust, falling love)

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Countertransference

Therapist's reaction to personal feelings toward the patient

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Negative transference

Showing anger and hostility towards the therapist

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Jung's analytic psychology is considered the

most unusual theory in the whole body of work on personality

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51

Jung referred to the total personality as the

psyche

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psyche

Represents all of the interacting systems within human personality which accounts for all mental life and behavior of a person

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psychic energy

The energy that flows continuously from concussions to unconsciousness and back

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54

Jung developed the concept of

self-realization and individuation

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Self -realization

Involves the integration of all aspects of the psyche (thoughts, feelings, and behaviors) and is the aim of individual development. The ultimate goal, is to fulfill our unique potentials and natures. Continues all throughout life

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Ego: (jung)

In the center of consciousness, is the unifying force in the psyche contains conscious thoughts including behavior, feelings, and memories

Center of pie

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The personal unconscious

In the psyche, contains all the forgotten experiences that have lost their intensity often due to unpleasantness or just weak impressions, and are only accessible under certain circumstances

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Collective unconscious

A storehouse of latent memories of our humans and prehuman ancestry consisting of instincts and archetypes that we inherit as possibilities and that often affect our behavior

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Archetypes

Universal themes or symbols can be activated by forces operating in the psyche, thereby generating visions that are projected onto current experiences

It exists at a universal theme or an idea that is common to all of mankind

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the 4 major archetypes

personna, shadow, anima and animus, the self

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personna

Archetypes consisting the role humans play in order to meet the demands of others

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shadow

Archetype consisting of the inferior, evil, and repulsive side of human nature

2 main aspects (not bolded btw)

Personal unconscious

In all experiences, humans reject on moral or ethical goals

Collective unconscious

The universal personification of evil within our psyche

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Anima and animus

The feminine archetype in a man (anima) and the masculine archetype in woman (animus). Elements of the opposite sex within us

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the self

An archetype that leads ppl to search for ways to maximize the development of their potential
The destiny of realizing who we are is the "way of individuation

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Individuation

A process by which a person becomes a definite, unique being that he in the fact is fulfilling his nature

Refers to the total psyche or personality including consciousness and unconsciousness

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Psychological types

Basic attitudes and functions toward life 

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Extraversion

Outgoing and relatively confident approach to life

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Introversion

Retiring and reflective approach to life

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Four functions (ways ppl relate to the work)

sensing, thinking, feeling, intuiting

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sensing

Initial, concrete experiencing without reason (thinking) or evaluation (feeling)

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thinking

Understanding events through the use of reason and logic

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feeling

Gives us an evaluation of events by judging whether they are good or bad

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Intuiting

Rely on hunches whenever we have to deal with strange situations with no established facts

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Theory of psychological types

The combination of the 4 types plus the two fundamental attitudes was unitized by Jungian analysis to make the 1st personality inventory, originally called the gray-wheelwright and later replaced by the Myers-Briggs type indicator (MBTI)

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Dream analysis (jung)

Dreams

Involuntary and spontaneous eruptions of repressed material rooted in the personal and collective unconscious

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Method of amplification of dream analysis (jung)

Method used to interpret dreams and reveal their meanings

Starts with a symbol and followed by giving numerous associations to it

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Word association test

Patients are presented with stimulus words and asked to respond. Records time it took between word and response

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Painting therapy

Believed paintings must be expressions of their innermost selves

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Adler was taught to treat the

whole patient

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This mentality later became the foundation of the theory of personality

Adler was taught to treat the whole patient, not just the ailment, and in order to be a good doctor you must be a kind doctor

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Individual psychology

Theory which seeks to understand the behavior of each person as an organized entity, focuses on the whole personality

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The ultimate goal is

superiority

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superiority

The striving to attain perfection,

(done to make up for feelings of inferiority)

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Ultimately the 2 paths (constructive= healthy; destructive= persoanl superioty at the expence of other) is determined in the

first 5 years of life

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organ inferiority

Caused exaggerated striving as the result of feelings of unmanliness

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It is not the defect itself that produces the striving, but the

person's attitude toward it

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Masculine protest

Attempts to compensate for feelings of inferiority by acting as though superior to others
Exaggerated attempts by individuals to overcome their feelings of inferiority by acting as though they are personally superior to others

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A normal perception to Adler is that all should acknowledge

some feelings of inferiority and use these feelings as motivators

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Adlers believed two main factors guiding personality development include (not bolded btw)

parenting and birth otder

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90

Birth order effects

How each child is treated by the parents depends on the birth order and correlates to personality development
Spacing, sex, birth defects, and developmental delays all play a role as well

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Destructive lifestyle (3 factors)

Organ inferiority

Neglect or rejection

Pampering

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Destructive lifestyles included:

The ruling type, the getting type, and the avoidant type

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The constructive lifestyle includes

the socially useful type

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Adler's classification for 4 major lifestyles

the socially useful type, The ruling type, the getting type, and the avoidant type

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The ruling type:

Strives for personal superiority by trying to exploit or control

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The getting type

Unhealthy person who attaints personal goals by relying indiscriminately on others for help

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The avoiding type

Lacks confidence to confront problems and avoids or ignores them

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The socially useful type

Healthy person who actively and courageously confronts and solves their own problems in accordance with social interest

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Assessment techniques

Foruces on early childhood and used 3 major assessment techniques

Early recollections

Dream analysis

(reflect the individual's unconscious attempts to achieve personal goals in accordance with his/her unique style of life)

Birth order analysis

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100

Neurosis (not bolded btw)

Freud:
The outgrowth of the person's inability to cope sexual impulses and strivings
Adler:
Result of feelings inferior
Horney:
Result of disturbed human relationships

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