AP Psych Unit 5

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What is semantic memory?

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Cognition and Intelligence

55 Terms

1

What is semantic memory?

Knowledge learned over many interactions

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2

What is episodic memory?

Remembering specific events (time, place, etc.)

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3

What is procedural memory?

"How to" or muscle memory

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4

What is prospective memory?

Remembering in order to remember

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5

What is memory?

The persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information

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6

List the three processes of remembering.

Encoding, storage, retrieval

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7

What is encoding?

The processing of information into memory system

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8

What is storage?

The process of retaining encoded information overtime.

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9

What is retrieval?

The process of getting information out of memory storage.

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10

What is parallel processing?

Processing many aspects of a situation simultaneously

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11

What is sensory memory?

The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.

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12

What are the three stages of the Atkinson-Shiffrin processing model?

Sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

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13

What is short-term memory?

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly.

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14

What is long-term memory?

The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system and it includes things like knowledge, skills, and experiences.

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15

What is working memory?

A newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual spatial information retrieved from long-term memory

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16

What are explicit memories?

Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare" (Declarative memory)

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17

How are explicit memories encoded?

Through effortful processing.

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18

What are implicit memories?

Retention independent of conscious recollection (Nondeclarative memory)

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19

How are implicit memories encoded?

Through automatic processing.

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20

What is effortful processing?

Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.

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21

What is automatic processing?

Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as time, place, and frequency.

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22

What is ionic memory?

A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli, or a photographic memory that does not last for more than a tenth of a second.

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23

What is echoic memory?

A momentary sensory of auditory stimuli: if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds

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24

What is the capacity of short-term memory?

Approximately seven items, plus or minus two but information disappears from memory if it is not rehearsed.

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25

What is the capacity of working memory?

It varies based on age, intelligence level, and other factors.

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26

What is chunking?

Organizing items into familiar, manageable units

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27

What are mnemonics?

Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.

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28

What is the spacing effect?

The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention.

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29

What is the testing effect?

Enhanced memory of retrieving, rather than simply rereading information.

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30

What is shallow processing?

Encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words.

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31

What is deep processing?

Encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words.

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32

Where are explicit memories stored and processed?

In the frontal lobes and hippocampus

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33

What happens when the left hippocampus is damaged?

You have trouble remembering verbal information.

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34

What happens when the right hippocampus is damaged?

You have trouble recalling visual designs and locations.

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35

What is the role of the cerebellum in memory processing?

Store implicit memories that are created by classical conditioning

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36

What is the role of the basal ganglia in memory processing?

Facilitates the formation of our procedural memories for skills

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37

How do emotions affect our memory processing?

Stress hormones are triggered and they influence memory formation. Stressful events are usually the most unforgettable.

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38

What is a flashbulb memory?

A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.

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39

What are the three measures of memory?

Recall, recognition, relearning

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40

What is recall?

A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information from earlier. Ex. Fill-in-the-blank questions

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41

What is recognition?

A measure of memory in which the person needs only to identify items previously learned. Ex. Multiple choice questions

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42

What is relearning?

A measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again. Ex. Studying for a final exam

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43

What is priming?

The activation, often unconsciously of particular associations of memory.

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44

What does state-dependent memory indicate?

What we learn in one state, may be easily recalled when we are in that state again.

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45

What is mood-congruent memory?

The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current mood either good or bad.

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46

What is recency effect?

The tendency to recall best the last items in a list/series

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47

What is primacy effect?

The tendency to recall best the first items in a list/series

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48

What is anterograde amnesia?

The inability to form new memories

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49

What is retrograde amnesia?

The inability to retrieve information from one's past

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50

Why does normal forgetting occur?

Three reasons: Encoding failure, storage decay, and retrieval failure

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51

What is proactive interference?

The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information. Ex. Having trouble remembering a friend's new phone number because you memorized the old one.

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52

What is retroactive interference?

The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information. Ex. Having trouble remembering what you learned in your first period class after you learned new material in your fourth period class.

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53

What is the misinformation effect?

Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.

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54

What is source amnesia?

Attributing to the wrong source an event which we have experienced, heard/read about, or imagined.

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55

What is deja vu?

The eerie sense that you have experienced a particular situation before.

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