Unit 3, Concept 1: Enzymes and Biochemical Reactions

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chemical reactions

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22 Terms
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chemical reactions

the creation or breaking of bonds

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activation energy

the amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction

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reactants

substrate- substances that are changed during a reaction

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products

substances that are made by a chemical reaction

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endothermic

absorbs energy (energy is stored as sugar, therefore endothermic)

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exothermic

releases energy ie cellular respiration (energy is released when sugar is broken down, there fore exothermic reactions)

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enzyme

type of protein that speeds up biochemical reactions, they are specialized molecules that bind to substrates and help to break or form bonds

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active site

site on the enzyme where the reaction takes place

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denaturation

enzymes active site gets deformed and loses its specific shape causing a loss of biological activity

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function of enzymes

speeds up biochemical reactions

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photosynthesis

6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2

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cellular respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O

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endothermic diagram

energy starts low and then gains energy for a process and ends with more energy than before

<p>energy starts low and then gains energy for a process and ends with more energy than before</p>
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exothermic diagram

energy starts high and increases for a process then decreases as it is released

<p>energy starts high and increases for a process then decreases as it is released</p>
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what are the 5 things that affect the rate of a chemical reaction

temperature, pH, substrate concentration, catalysts, and competitive inhibitors

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temperature

higher X increases the rate of reaction as molecules move faster more collisions occur

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pH

how acidic a solution is; most enzymes only work at a specific X

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substrate concentration

more X means faster reaction because there are more particle collisions

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catalysts

speed up reactions (like enzymes)

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competitive inhibitors

slow down reactions

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lock and key model

enzymes can break bonds in a substrate to form two products or make bonds between substrates to from one product

<p>enzymes can break bonds in a substrate to form two products or make bonds between substrates to from one product</p>
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describe the lock and key model

the substrate enters the enzymes activation site and comes out as the product

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