Honors Chem Ch 1

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Material

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Chemistry

97 Terms

1

Material

matter that takes up space and resists changes to motion

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Chemistry

study of material, its properties and changes

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3

Submicroscopic

things we cannot see- atomic level (combusting is occurring - chemical bonds are being broken)

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Macroscopic

things we can see with our senses (can see a flame and smell the burning)

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5

Properties of matter depend on:

composition or kinds of elements AND on atom arrangement (H20 and H2O2)

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6

Gas (unlike liquid and solids) are

able to be compressed

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7

Gas has

no fixed volume OR shape

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8

Gas particles move in a

chaotic movement spaced far apart

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9

Liquid has

fixed volume but NOT fixed shape

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10

Liquid particles are

closer together and slide past each other

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11

Liquids and Solids are

NOT COMPRESSIBLE

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12

Solids have

a fixed volume AND a fixed shape

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13

Solid particles are

closer together and they vibrate in their individual places (submicroscopic)

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14

A Pure substance can be composed of

elements or compounds

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15

Elements are

one type of atom (can be found on the periodic table)

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16

Elements cannot be

broken down

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17

Elements are hard

to find naturally in the environment

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18

Compounds are

composed of 2 or more atoms that are CHEMICALLY bonded together

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19

Compounds have to

be in fixed proportions or ratios

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20

A mixture is

a combination of 2 or more pure substances that ARE NOT chemically bonded together

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21

Since mixtures are not chemically bonded

they are easier to separate

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22

Mixtures...

... do not have to be in fixed proportions or ratios

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23

A heterogeneous mixture

does NOT have the same composition, properties and appearance throughout

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24

Examples of a heterogeneous mixture

sand, tile

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25

A homogeneous mixture

are the same throughout, uniform

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Another word for a homogeneous mixture is

solution

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Examples of homogeneous mixture

gasoline, brass

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28

Law of Definite Proportions

the fixed ratio of compounds (H20 two hydrogens for every oxygen)

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29

Properties are what

allow you to recognize and distinguish one substance from another

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30

Physical properties

can be measured without changing the identity and composition of the substance

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31

Physical properties are typically viewed on the

macroscopic level

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Examples of Physical Properties

color, odor, density, boiling point

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An individual atom DOES NOT posses a

individual physical property. An individual atom does not have color or a boiling point.

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34

Chemical properties are

the way that a substance may change or react to another substance.

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35

An example of a chemical property is

flammability, the ability to burn in the presence of oxygen

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36

A substance will have a changed chemical symbol when ________ properties are being tested.

Chemical

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37

Intensive properties are

INdependent on the amount of substance present

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38

Examples of intensive properties

density or boiling point (1 cup of water and 1 gallon of water both boil at 100*C)

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Extensive properties are

dependent on the quantity (amount) of substance present

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40

Examples of extensive properties

mass and volume (the more stuff you have the more mass or volume there will be)

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41

Changes can be classified into two categories

physical and chemical

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42

Physical Changes

change in appearance but not chemical composition

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Examples of physical changes

Change in state (Gas-Liquid-Solid) and dissolving of salt (can evaporate water and salt is still there) chopping something up

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44

Chemical Changes

change in chemical composition

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45

How can you tell a chemical reaction occurred? (MUST KNOW)

All 5 are unexpected

  1. Gas forms (bubbles)

  2. Precipitate forms

  3. Heat

  4. Light

  5. Color change

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Examples of chemical changes

burning, rusting, fermenting (cheese, wine)

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Chemical changes are also called

chemical reactions

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48

Quantitative observations contain

a number and a unit (15.5 g)

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49

Qualitative observations contain

a word description (the stick was very long)

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50

Hypothesis is a

possible explanation for an observation

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51

Personal and small in scope

hypothesis

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Hypothesis are used to

plan future experiments

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Hypothesis's and theories are

subject to revision

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Hypothesis's can be

proven right or wrong

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In short, a hypothesis is

a smaller idea and pre-experimental and attempts to answer why

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Theory is

an overall explanation of certain phenomena

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Theories need

considerable experimental evidence or observations to support it

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A theory provides

background information for a hypothesis

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A big general idea that is large in scope

theory

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A hypothesis is tested

via experimentation

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Theories cannot

be proven via experimentation

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A theory can never be

proven correct absolutely correct but has not yet been proven wrong

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Theories are used to

make predictions

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64

Natural Law

is a statement that summarizes generally observed behavior.

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Natural Law is NOT

an explanation of the facts.

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Natural Laws are

supported by a large body of experimental results

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67

Derived Units

consist of a combination of base units

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68

1 cm^3 =

1 mL

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1 dm^3

1 Liter

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Density=

mass/volume

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Precision measures

how closely individual measurements agree with one another.

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To determine precision

you need to repeat the same test many times

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Precision is an indicator of

random error

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Random Error

is random and that an error in measurement has an equal chance of causing your result to be high or low

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Accuracy measures

how closely individual measurements agree with the correct value

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76

Giga (G)

1x10^9

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77

Mega (M)

1x10^6

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Kilo (k)

1x10^3

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79

Deci (d)

1x10^-1

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80

Centi (c)

1x10^-2

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Milli (m)

1x10^-3

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Micro (µ)

1x10^-6

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Nano

1x10^-9

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84

Unit for Mass

kilogram

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85

kilogram abbreviation

kg

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86

Unit for Length

Meter

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Meter abbreviation

m

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Unit for Time

Second

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Second abbreviation

s

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90

Unit for Temperature

Kelvin

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91

Kelvin abbreviation

K (uppercase)

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92

Unit for Amount of Substance

Mole

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93

Mole abbreviation

mol

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94

Unit for Electric Current

Ampere

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95

Ampere abbreviation

A (uppercase)

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96

Unit for Luminous Intensity

Candela

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97

Candela abbreviation

cd

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