Chemistry Ch 1 & 2

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61 Terms
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chemistry

the study of matter and the changes it undergoes

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matter

anything that has mass and takes up space

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model

simplifies something in the world in order to explain, describe, or represent it

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presuppositions

assumptions about the world based on their worldview

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worldview

answers questions that determine how we look at the world

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quantitative data

data in the form of numbers determined through measuring

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qualitative data

data in the form of words used to describe something

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deductive reasoning

proceeds from general statements called premises to a specific conclusion

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inductive reasoning

proceeds from known data to an unknown general conclusion. Uses data to to draw conclusions but it cannot prove these conclusions to be completely certain

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hypothesis

a suggested explanation for a scientific question

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experiment

a way to observe a natural process, sometimes under controlled conditions, to know if their hypothesis is correct

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variables

factors that change

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dependent variable

the factors of an experiment that change in relation to the independent variable

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independent variable

the variable that the scientist changes

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survey

a process that involves randomly selecting representative samples from a larger population; relies on inductive reasoning

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theory

offers explanations of what we observe; can be thought of as scientific models

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Scientific Law

a statement that describes a recognizable, repeating pattern in nature. It is based on observations made under many different conditions. They are often stated in mathematical equations.

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physical properties

determined by how the particles that compose the material relate to one another

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extensive property

does depend on the amount of substance present; e.g. weight, mass, volume, length

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intensive property

a property of matter that doesn't matter how much of the substance is present; e.g. boiling point, color, temperature, density

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density

the amount of matter packed into a given volume; density=mass/volume

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malleability

material that can be hammered into shapes or thin sheets; most metals are malleable

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ductility

materials that can be drawn into long thin wires

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conductivity

the ability to conduct electricity

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chemical properties

describe how matter acts in the presence of other materials; how it changes composition when sufficient energy is added to it

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physical changes occur...

without changing the identity of the material

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chemical changes occur...

by changing the identity of the material

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pure substance

consists of only one type of matter; made up of elements of compounds

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mixture

a material that can be separated into two or more pure substances by physical changes

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heterogeneous mixture

appears to consist of 2 or more materials segregated into distinct regions called phases

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suspensions

when particles are suspended in a liquid or gaseous phase

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homogeneous mixture

show only a single phase; also known as solutions

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colloid

consisting of large molecules of one substance through a second substance

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colloid examples

milk, gels, mayonnaise, butter

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element

a pure substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance my ordinary chemical means; has only one type of atom

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atom

basic particles that make up elements

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compound

pure substances that consist of 2 or more elements chemically combined

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formula unit

crystalline arrays with repeating arrangements of ions

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operational description of energy

the ability to do work

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mechanical energy

objects moving or having the ability to move

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thermal energy

perceived by transfer of heat energy; the sum of the kinetic energy of an object's particles

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acoustic energy

if particles move in a periodic way (like waves)

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electromagnetic energy

the movement of charged particles creates magnetic fields, which in turn affect other charged particles or magnetic fields; includes visible light and all other waves on the spectrum

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chemical energy

when charged particles move between atoms, atoms form and break bonds with other atoms

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nuclear energy

when a nucleus breaks apart or when particles are added to or removed from a nucleus

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thermodynamics

the study of movement and conversion of energy, especially thermal energy

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Law of Conservation of Mass-Energy/ The Law of Entropy

mass can neither be created nor destroyed; it can only change from one form to another

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entropy

the measure of the dispersal energy

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Second Law of Thermodynamics

all natural processes tend toward the highest entropy and minimum usable energy

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internal energy

the sum of the potential and kinetic energies of its component particles; measured as temperature

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heat transfer

the transfer of thermal energy between two objects or substances

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heat

the quantity of thermal energy transferred from one object to another

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exothermic

release of energy

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endothermic

absorption of energy

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Third Law of Thermodynamics

it is impossible to reach absolute zero

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condensation

gas to liquid

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vaporization

liquid to gas

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freezes

liquid to solid

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melts

solid to liquid

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sublimation

solid to gas

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deposition

gas to solid

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