# Thermodynamics & Calorimetry

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Collision Theory

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## Tags and Description

### 49 Terms

1

Collision Theory

reactants need to combine w/ enough energy and in proper orientation in order to react

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2

effective collision

a collision that results in a chemical reaction

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3

law of conservation of energy

energy cannot be created or destroyed

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4

kinetic energy

energy used for motion

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5

potential energy

stored energy- when reactants collide

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6

activated complex

unstable phase while reaction is occurring

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7

enthalpy

the amount of energy(heat) being stored in bonds of a compound.

Note: products & reactants almost always have an absorption release of enthalpies

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8

endothermic reaction

• when products have a higher enthalpy

• reaction in which energy is absorbed

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9

exothermic reaction

• reaction in which energy is released

• when products have a lower enthalpy

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10

specific heat

substance ability to resist temperature change

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11

high specific heat

requires a lot of energy to inc. or dec. in temperature

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12

Calorimetry Equation

mcΔT

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13

Q

heat (joules)

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14

M

mass (grams) *if not in grams, convert

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15

C

specific heat (j/gC)

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16

T

temperature (C)

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17

reactants

1

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18

products

6

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19

activation complex

3

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20

Heat of the reaction

5

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21

Q of absorbed

Q of released =

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22

Q of released

Q of absorbed =

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23

-Q

if energy is lost (__Q)

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24

+Q

if energy is absorbed (__Q)

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25

ΔH (delta H)

change in variable

H final-H initial

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26

-ΔH

exothermic H

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27

+ΔH

endothermic H

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28

potential energy (hold together)

there is a specific amount of energy holding together H2 & O2

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29

potential energy

When the particles collide, Kinetic Energy becomes ______

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30

5 things to increase rate of Effective collision

• temperature (changes energy & likelihood, speed & rate)

• pressure (decrease in volume, more collisions)

• surface area (increase # of particles for collisions)

• presence of catalyst

• concentration (likelihood of collisions is higher bc more molecules)

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31

no, sometimes they bounce off because:

• not enough energy

• did not collide in the right spot

Do molecules always react when they collide?

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32

they collide

why do molecules react?

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33

entropy

the amount of disorder in a system

naturally increases (easier to create disorder than order)

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34

least entropy

particles in solids stay in place: rigid, fixed shape, fixed volume (____entropy)

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35

most entropy

gas particles move freely & randomly (____ entropy)

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36

least particles

least disorder (solid)

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37

most particles

most disorder (gas)

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38

S

entropy

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39

entropy equation

ΔS = S final - S initial

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40

spontaneous

• uses energy to create reaction

• once reaction starts, continues on own

• these reactions can possibly take a long time

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41

non spontaneous

• needs a constant source of energy

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42

-ΔG

spontaneous reaction

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43

which thermic is more favorable

exothermic (more spontaneous)

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44

which ΔS is more energetically favorable

+ΔS

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45

+ΔS

inc. in entropy

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46

-ΔS

dec. entropy

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47

Exothermic + inc entropy (-ΔS) =

ALWAYS SPONTANEOUS

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48

Endothermic + dec. entropy =

NEVER SPONTANEOUS

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49

gibbs free energy equation

ΔG = ΔH - TΔS

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