Chapter 16: mitosis and meiosis

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Biology

12th

62 Terms

1

cell cycle

life cycle of a cell

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2

somatic cells

body cells, go through mitosis

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3

asexual reproduction

no combination of cellular material occurs

  • all new cells contain the same genetic material as the original cell (clone of og cell)

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4

why cells reproduce

  • growth (adding new cells)

  • maintenance (replacement of cells)

  • repair (regeneration of damaged tissue)

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5

parent cell

original cell that divides to produce two new daughter cells

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6

daughter cell

any one of the cells produced from the division of the parent cell

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7

fragmentation

a type of cloning where a broken-off section of an organism is able to grow into a new genetically similar organism

  • starfish

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8

DNA

contains genetic information of a cell

  • governs processes of heredity in the cells of an organism

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9

chromosome

length of DNA, associated with proteins

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10

centromere

the point where 2 sister chromatids are joined

  • where the spindle fibers attach during mitosis

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11

chromatin

mass of long intertwined strands of DNA

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12

eukaryotic cell

makeup plants fungi and animals

  • have large membrane-bound nucleus

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13

homologous chromosomes

similar looking chromosomes with the same banding pattern

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14

autosomes

pairs of homologous chromosomes numbered 1-22

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15

mitosis

production of the same cell

  • haploid (n) → haploid

  • Diploid (2n) → diploid

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16

sex chromosomes

carries the genes involved in determining the genetic sex of an individual

  • AFAB has 2 X chromosomes

  • AMAB has X and Y chromosomes

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17

genes

areas of DNA that contain specific information at the same location

  • homologous pairs contain the same genes

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18

alleles

different forms of a gene

  • homologous pairs carry different alleles

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19

diploid

a cell that contains pairs of homologous chromosomes

  • 2n =46

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20

haploid

cell that contains unpaired chromosomes

  • gametes

  • n=23

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21

gametes

reproductive cells

  • sperm and egg

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22

polyploid

has more then 2 homologous chromosomes

  • plants

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23

karyotype

the particular set of chromosomes and individual possesses

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24

interphase

cell carries out regular metabolic functions and prepares for cell division

  • G1→Sphase→G2

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25

G1 phase

rapid cell growth and metabolic activity

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26

S phase

DNA replicates, making sister chromatids joined at centromere

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27

G2 phase

cell duplicates organelles, and prepares for division

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28

sister chromatids

two chromosomes that are exactly the same connected by the centromere

  • happens in S phase

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29

prophase

  • chromatin condenses into chromosomes

  • nuclear membrane/envelope breaks down

  • centrioles move to opposite poles

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30

metaphase

  • spindle fibres guide chromosomes toward the middle of the cell

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31

anaphase

  • centromere splits apart and sister chromatids separate

  • chromatids are pulled to opposite polls

  • 1 complete diploid set of chromosomes are formed

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32

telophase

  • Chromatid begin to unwind

  • nuclear membrane form around each new set pf chromosomes

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33

cytokinesis

division of cytoplasm to complete the creation of new daughter cells

  • indentation forms on daughter cells equator and cells are pinched in two

  • cytoplasm and organelles and equally divided between the two cells

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34

sexual reproductoin

production of gametes by meiosis followed by fertilisation between genetically distinct parental gametes to produce genetically distinct offspring

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35

meiosis

the process that produces haploid cells in ovaries and testes

  • 4 cells with 23 chromosomes each

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36

prophase 1

  • chromatin condenses into chromosomes

  • nuclear membrane/envelope breaks down

  • centrioles move to opposite poles

  • chromosomes synapsis and cross over

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37

synapsis

aligning of homologous pairs

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38

tetrad

pair of homologous chromosomes

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39

crossing over

the exchange of genetic material of homologous pairs

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40

Metaphase 1

  • chromosomes line up next to their homologous pairs in the middle of the cell

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41

anaphase 1

  • homologous pairs are separated and pulled to opposite polls

  • 23 sister chromatids are on opposite sides of the cell

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42

telophase 1

  • Chromatids begin to unwind

  • nuclear membrane forms around each new set of chromosomes

  • each new cell is haploid containing 1 set of sister chromosomes

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43

meiosis

production of genetically different haploid cells

  • 2n → n

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44

fertilisation

the combination of two haploid cells to make a diploid cell

  • 2 cells → 1 cell

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45

gametophyte

the haploid stage in the life cycle of a plant where it produces gametes through mitosis.

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46

sporophyll

A modified leaf that bears sporangia and is responsible for producing and dispersing spores in ferns and other seedless plants.

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47

meiosis 2

same as mitosis but with 23 chromosomes

  • makes 4 haploid cells

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48

gametogenesis

the formation of ova and sperm through meiosis

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49

spermatogenesis

process of sperm production

  • 4 sperm cells produced

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50

oogenesis

process of egg production

  • only 1 egg is produced, other 3 polar bodies sacrifice their cytoplasm to produce 1 large egg

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51

nondisjunction

when chromosomes don’t separate during anaphase

  • 1 daughter cell is produced during separation that will lack information and 1 cell will have too much

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52

trisomy

one too many chromosomes (pair becomes a triplet)

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53

monosomy

one too few chromosomes (pair becomes a singlet)

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54

prokaryotes

have a single circular chromosome and no nucleus

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55

binary fission

equal division of cytoplasm a nucleus of an organism resulting in two new organisms

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56

budding

nucleus of organisms cells divide equally but cytoplasm does not

  • new cells formed can live as individuals or colonies

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57

regeneration

the development of an entirely new organism from part of the original organism

  • restoration of lost body parts

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58

parthenogenesis

asexual reproduction in which an unfertilized egg develops into an adult

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59

cell death

cells in the body divide a finite number of times before they cannot anymore

  • spermatocytes and cancer cells have no life span

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60

cancer

rapid uncontrolled division of cells

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61

metastasis

spreading of cancer cells through the body caused by the fact that cancerous cells have lost the attraction each other to

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62

alternation of generation

when an organism can exist as haploid or diploid

  • spores (n) are produced by the sporophyte generation (2n)

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