BIOLOGY EXAM

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Interphase (Mitosis)

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78 Terms

1

Interphase (Mitosis)

G1, S, and G2 phase of cell cycle DNA is replicated in S phase

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2

Telophase (mitosis)

the nuclei for the newly split cells form, the nucleoli reappear, and the chromatin uncoils

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3

Multicellular

Consisting of many cells

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4

Nucleus

A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

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5

Chloroplast

An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs

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6

Mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production

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7

Hydrophobic

water hating

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8

Osmosis

Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

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9

cell cycle

series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide

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10

Prophase (mitosis)

chromatin condenses into chromosomes centriole pairs separate, nuclear membrane dissolves which allows spindle fibers to contact chromosomes

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11

Anaphase (Mitosis)

cell elongates and sister chromatids are pulled apart toward the poles

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12

Cytokinesis

division of the cytoplasm

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13

cancer cells

cells that grow and divide continuously at an unregulated pace

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14

multipotent stem cells

stem cells that can become a limited number of types of tissues and cells in the body

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15

Prokaryote

A unicellular organism that lacks a well defined nucleus and membrane bound organelles

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16

Eukaryote

A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

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17

Unicellular

Made of a single cell

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18

surface area to volume ratio

Ratio of a cell's outside area to its internal volume.

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19

plasma membrane

A selectively-permeable phospholipid bilayer forming the boundary of the cells

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20

Ribosomes

site of protein synthesis

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21

Endoplasmic Reticulum

A system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids.

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22

Golgi body

A structure in a cell that receives proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, packages them, and distributes them to other parts of the cell.

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23

Vacuole

A sac inside a cell that acts as a storage area

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24

cell wall

A rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms.

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25

Hydrophilic

water loving

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26

Diffusion

Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

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27

passive transport

Requires NO energy, Movement of molecules from high to low concentration, Moves with the concentration gradient

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active transport

Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference

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29

facilitated diffusion

Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels

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30

Endocytosis

A process in which a cell engulfs extracellular material through an inward folding of its plasma membrane.

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31

Exocytosis

Process by which a cell releases large amounts of material

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32

isotonic solution

A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution

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hypertonic solution

Solute concentration is greater than that inside the cell; cell loses water

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hypotonic solution

Solute concentration is less than that inside the cell; cell gains water

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35

binary fission

A form of asexual reproduction in which one cell divides to form two identical cells.

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36

Mitosis

cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes

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37

Metaphase (mitosis)

Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell

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38

Apoptosis

process of programmed cell death

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39

stem cells

undifferentiated cells

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40

pluripotent stem cells

Stem cells that can become almost all types of tissues and cells in the body.

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41

totipotent stem cells

Stem cells that can differentiate into any type of specialised cells found in organisms of that species.

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42

Xylem

vascular tissue that carries water upward from the roots to every part of a plant

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43

Phloem

Living vascular tissue that carries sugar and organic substances throughout a plant

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44

Transpiration

Evaporation of water from the leaves of a plant

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45

Translocation

The movement of sucrose and other substances like amino acids around a plant

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46

Stomata

Small openings on the underside of a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move

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47

vascular plants

Plants that have tubes inside of them to transport liquid.

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48

digestive system

Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells.

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49

excretory system

the system that removes waste from your body and controls water balance

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50

endocrine system

Consists of glands that control many of the body's activities by producing hormones.

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51

Homeostasis

process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment

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52

negative feedback loop

A feedback loop in which a system responds to a change by returning to its original state, or by decreasing the rate at which the change is occurring.

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53

positive feedback loop

a feedback loop in which change in a system is amplified

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54

stimulus response model

Stimulus - receptor - control centre - effector - response

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55

Thermoregulation

Process of maintaining an internal temperature within a tolerable range.

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56

Osmoregulation

The control of water balance.

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57

diabetes

A condition in which the body is unable to produce enough insulin, the hormone required for the metabolism of sugar

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58

Hypoglycemia

abnormally low level of sugar in the blood

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59

hyperglycemia

excessive sugar in the blood

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60

Tissue

A group of similar cells that perform the same function.

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61

Cells

Basic unit of life

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Organs

Tissues are organized into:, group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions.

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63

Body Systems

groups of organs that perform specific functions in the human body

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64

Organs of the digestive system

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum

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organs of the excretory system

kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra

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organs of the endocrine system

pituitary, thymus, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and pineal glands; ovaries, testes, and pancreas

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67

independent variable

The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

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68

dependent variable

The measurable effect, outcome, or response in which the research is interested.

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69

controlled variable

Factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely keeps the same

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70

control

In an experiment, the standard that is used for comparison

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71

extraneous variable

In an experiment, a variable other than the IV that might cause unwanted changes in the DV.

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72

qualitative data

descriptive data

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73

Quantitative data

numerical data

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74

Hypothesis

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

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75

Reliability

consistency of measurement

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76

Validity

the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to

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77

Precision

a measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another

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78

Accuracy

how close a measurement is to the true value

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