Earth Space Science Fall Final 2/2

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What is the process of lithification?

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1

What is the process of lithification?

A physical and chemical process that transform sediments into sedimentary rocks

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2

How does lithification occur during the formation of sedimentary rock?

Compaction- sediments are forced together by the weight of the sediments above

Cementation- minerals glue sediment grains together to form a solid rock

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3

What is the process of metamorphism in rocks and what two conditions are needed to start the metamorphic process?

Heat and pressure is applied to the rocks and causes the molecules and atoms to rearrange, but not melt the rock

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4

What is foliation and how does it correlate to the two different types of metamorphic rock?

Foliated- banded or layered appearance

Nonfoliated- no banded texture

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5

What is the rock cycle?

Shows the interrelationships among the three rock types

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6

What is the difference between mechanical weathering and chemical weathering?

Mechanical- occurs when physical forces break rock into smaller pieces without changing its composition

Chemical- transformation of rock into one or more new compounds

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7

What is the most important agent of chemical weathering?

Water

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8

What are the four major components of soil?

Mineral matter, humus, water, and air

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9

What are the five important factors in soil formation? Describe them

Parent material- bedrock in residual soil

Time- the longer a soil has been forming, the thicker it is

Climate- greatest effect on soil formation

Organisms- influence soil’s physical and chemical properties

Slope- steep slopes lead to bad soil, orientation (direction slope faces) influences soil formation

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10

What are the two types of soil erosion?

Water and wind erosion

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11

What are the differences between base level and local level? Where are they located?

Base level- lowest point to which a stream can erode (the level at which the mouth of a stream enters an ocean, lake, or another stream)

Local level- where a stream enters another body of water (lake, river, or stream)

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12

What is a drainage basin and what is it used for?

Land area that contributes water to a stream

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13

What are the various mass movements?

Rockfalls, slides, slumps, flows, and creeps

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14

When do rockfalls occur and how are they caused?

When slopes are too steep for materials to remain on the surface, often caused by frost wedging

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15

What is a slide and where do they often occur?

A block of material that moves suddenly along a flat, inclined surface, often occur in mountainous areas

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16

What is a slump?

The downward movement of a block of material along a curved surface

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17

What is a flow?

Mass movements of material containing a large amount of water

(mudflow and earthflow)

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18

What is a creep?

The slow, downhill movement of soil and regolith

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19

What is the difference between stalactite and stalagmites?

Stalactites hang from the ceiling, stalagmites grow from the floor

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20

How does the water cycle work and how does it stay balanced?

Precipitation, evaporation, infiltration, condensation, runoff, transpiration

Stays balances by the average annual precipitation = amount of evaporation water

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21

What is an aquifer and how does it maintain water?

Permeable rock layers or sediments that transmit groundwater freely

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22

Where is the zone of saturation?

Area where water fills all of the open spaces in sediment and rock

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23

Where is the zone of aeration?

Area above the water table where the pore space is filled with air

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24

What are the two types of glaciers?

Valley glaciers and ice sheets

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25

What are valley glaciers?

Ice masses that slowly go down mountain valleys originally occupied by streams

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26

What are ice sheets?

Big ice masses that flow in all directions, they don’t cover the highest land

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27

What term is used when large pieces of ice break off a glacier? What is the result?

Calving→makes icebergs

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28

What are the two types of glacial erosion?

Plucking and abrasion

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29

What is plucking?

Lifting of rock blocks

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30

What is abrasion?

Occurs when the glacier with rock fragments slide across bedrock

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31

What is a glacial trough?

U-shaped valley that was once V-shaped but was deepened by a glacier

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32

What is a hanging valley?

A former tributary glacier valley that is cut into the upper part of a U-shaped glacier valley

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33

What is a cirque?

Bowl-shaped depression at the head of a glacial valley

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34

What is an arêtes?

Snaking, sharp-edged ridged

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35

What is a horn?

Sharp pyramid-like peaks that project above mountain landscapes

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36

What are the two types of glacial drift?

Till and stratified drift

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37

What is a till?

Material deposited directly by the glacier

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38

What is a stratified drift?

Sediment laid down by glacial meltwater

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39

What are the three different types of faults?

Normal, reverse, and strike-slip

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40

How do normal faults occur?

When the hanging wall block moves down relative to the footwall block

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41

How do reverse faults occur?

The hanging wall block moves up relative to the footwall block

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42

How do strike-slip faults occur?

The movement is horizontal and parallel to the trend or strike of the fault surface

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43

What is the difference between the focus and epicenter of an earthquake?

Focus- the point within Earth where the earthquake starts

Epicenter- the location on the surface directly above the focus

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44

What are the three different types of seismic waves?

P waves, S waves, and Surface waves

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45

What are P waves characteristics?

They travel fastest, are push-pull waves, and travel through solids, liquids, and gases

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46

What are S waves characteristics?

They are slower than P waves, shake particles at right angles to the direction they travel, they travel along Earth’s outer layer

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47

What are surface waves characteristics?

The slowest type of waves, moves group up/down and side to side, are the most destructive

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48

What is a tsunami and how do they form?

Big waves;

One triggered by an earthquake occurs where a slab of the ocean floor is displaced vertically along a fault

Can also occur when the vibration of a quake sets an underwater landslide into motion

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49

What is the process of liquefaction and how does it occur?

Occurs in areas where soil and rocks are captured with water

-the ground cannot support structure and soil acts as liquid

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