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Navigation Acts

A series of British regulations which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to control and regulate colonial trade. Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues. They were reinstated after the French and Indian War because Britain needed to pay off debts incurred during the war, and to pay the costs of maintaining a standing army in the colonies.

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Grenville’s program

As Prime Minister, he passed the Sugar Act in 1764 & the Stamp Act in 1765 to help finance the cost of maintaining a standing force of British troops in colonies and believed in reducing financial burden on the British by enacting new taxes in the colonies.

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Sugar act (1764)

Part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue program, the act replaced the Molasses Act of 1733, and actually lowered the tax on sugar and molasses from 6 cents to 3 cents a barrel, but for the first time adopted provisions that would insure that the tax was strictly enforced; created the vice-admiralty courts and made it illegal for the colonies to buy goods from non-British Caribbean colonies.

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A movement under which the colonies agreed to stop importing goods from Britain in order to protest the Stamp Act.

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Stamp Act

British legislation passed as part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue measures which required that all legal or official documents used in the colonies, such as wills, deeds and contracts, had to be written on special, stamped British paper. It was so unpopular in the colonies that it caused riots, and most of the stamped paper sent to the colonies from Britain was burned by angry mobs. Because of this opposition, and the decline in British imports caused by the non- importation movement, London merchants convinced Parliament to repeal it in 1766. 

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Stamp Act Congress

27 delegates from 9 colonies met from October 7-24, 1765, and drew up a list of declarations and petitions against the new taxes imposed on the colonies.

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Patrick Henry

An American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the colonies to fight for independence. In connection with a petition to declare a "state of defense" in Virginia in 1775, he gave his most famous speech which ends with the words, "Give me liberty or give me death.” Served as Governor of Virginia and was instrumental in causing the Bill of Rights to be adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution. 

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Sons of Liberty

A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. Leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.

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Internal Taxes

Taxes which arose out of activities that occurred "internally" within the colonies. (Ex. Stamp Act)

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External Taxes

Taxes arose out of activities that originated outside of the colonies, such as customs duties. (Ex. Sugar Act)

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Declaratory Act

Passed at the same time that the Stamp Act was repealed, the Act declared that Parliament had the power to tax the colonies both internally and externally, and had absolute power over the colonial legislatures.

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Quartering Act

Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies. 

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Townshend Acts

Another series of revenue measures, passed by Townshend as Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1767, which taxed quasi-luxury items imported into the colonies, including paper, lead, tea, and paint. The colonial reaction was outrage and they instituted another movement to stop importing British goods. 

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Samuel Adams

A Massachusetts politician who was a radical fighter for colonial independence. Helped organize the Sons of Liberty and the Non-Importation Commission, which protested the Townshend Acts, and is believed to have led the Boston Tea Party. He served in the Continental Congress throughout the Revolution, and served as Governor of Massachusetts from 1794-1797. 

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The Association

Military organization formed by Franklin which formed fighting units in Penn, and erected two batteries on Delaware River. 

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Boston Massacre

The colonials hated the British soldiers in the colonies because they worked for very low wages and took jobs away from colonists. On March 4, 1770, a group of colonials started throwing rocks and snowballs at some British soldiers; the soldiers panicked and fired their muskets, killing a few colonials. This outraged the colonies and increased anti-British sentiment. 

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Crispus Attucks

One of the colonials involved in the Boston Massacre, and the first to die. He became a martyr. 

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John Adams

A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Later served as the second President of the United States. A Federalist, he had little say in Washington's administration. 

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Carolina Regulators

Western frontiersmen who in 1768 rebelied in protest against the high taxes imposed by the Eastern colonial government of North Carolina, and whose organization was crushed by military force by Governor Tryon in 1771. In South Carolina, groups of vigilantes who organized to fight outlaw bands along the Western frontier in 1767-1769, and who disbanded when regular courts were established in those areas. 

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Gaspée Incident

In June, 1772, the British customs ship Gaspée ran aground off the colonial coast. When the British went ashore for help. colonials boarded the ship and burned it. They were sent to Britain for trial. Colonial outrage led to the widespread formation of Committees of Correspondence. 

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Thomas Hutchinson

A Boston-born merchant who served as the Royal Governor of Massachusetts from 1771 to 1774. Supporter of Parliament's right to tax the colonies, and his home had been burned by a mob during the Stamp Acts riots in 1765. In 1773 his refusal to comply with demands to prohibit an East India Company ship from unloading its cargo precipitated the Boston Tea Party. He fled to England in 1774, where he spent the remainder of his life.

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Committees of Correspondence

These started as groups of private citizens in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New York who, in 1763, began circulating information about opposition to British trade measures. The first government-organized committee appeared in Massachusetts in 1764. Other colonies created their own committees in order to exchange information and organize protests to British trade regulations. Became particularly active following the Gaspee Incident. 

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Tea Act

Gave the East India Company a monopoly on the trade in tea, made it illegal for the colonies to buy non-British tea, and forced the colonies to pay the tea tax of 3 cents/pound. 

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Boston Tea Party

 British ships carrying tea sailed into Boston Harbor and refused to leave until the colonials took their tea. Boston was boycotting the tea in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships bring the tea ashore. Finally, on the night of December 16, 1773, colonials disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard. They did so because they were afraid that Governor Hutchinson would secretly unload the tea because he owned a share in the cargo. 

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Intolerable Acts

Passed in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party, and which included the Boston Port Act, which shut down Boston Harbor; the Massachusetts Government Act, the Quartering Act, and the Administration of Justice Act.

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Boston Port Act

One of the Coercive Acts, which shut down Boston Harbor until Boston repaid the East India Company for the lost tea.

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Quebec Act

passed by Parliament, alarmed the colonies because it recognized the Roman-Catholic Church in Quebec. Some colonials took it as a sign that Britain was planning to impose Catholicism upon the colonies.

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First Continental Congress

Met to discuss their concerns over Parliament's dissolutions of New York, Massachusetts, and Virginia. Rejected the plan for a unified colonial government, stated grievances against the crown called the Declaration of Rights, resolved to prepare militias, and created the Continental Association to enforce a new non-importation agreement through Committees of Vigilance. In response, in February, 1775, Parliament declared the colonies to be in rebellion. 

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Continental Association

Created by the First Continental Congress, it enforced the non-importation of British goods by empowering local Committees of Vigilance in each colony to fine or arrest violators. It was meant to pressure Britain to repeal the Coercive Acts.

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Battles of Lexington and Concord

General Gage, stationed in Boston, was ordered by King George III to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock. The British marched on Lexington, where they believed the colonials had a cache of weapons. The colonial militias, warned beforehand by Paul Revere and William Dawes, attempted to block the progress of the troops and were fired on by the British at Lexington. The British continued to Concord, where they believed Adams and Hancock were hiding, and they were again attacked by the colonial militia. As the British retreated to Boston, the colonials continued to shoot at them from behind cover on the sides of the road. This was the start of the Revolutionary War. 

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Paul Revere and William Dawes

Rode through the countryside warning local militias of the approach of the British troops prior to the Battles of Lexington and Concord.

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Second Continental Congress

Met in 1776 and drafted and signed the Declaration of Independence, which justified the Revolutionary War and declared that the colonies should be independent of Britain. 

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George Washington

He had led troops during the French and Indian War, and had surrendered Fort Necessity to the French. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and was much more successful in this second command. He established many of the presidential traditions, including limiting a president's tenure to two terms. He was against political parties and strove for political balance in government by appointing political adversaries to government positions.

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Battle of Bunker Hill

At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, the British troops were based in Boston. The British army had begun to fortify the Dorchester Heights near Boston, and so the Continental Army fortified Breed's Hill, north of Boston, to counter the British plan. British general Gage led two unsuccessful attempts to take this hill, before he finally seized it with the third assault. The British suffered heavy losses and lost any hope for a quick victory against the colonies.

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Olive Branch Petition

On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts. ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies. 

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Thomas Paine

A British citizen, he wrote Common Sense, published on January 1, 1776, to encourage the colonies to seek independence. It spoke out against the unfair treatment of the colonies by the British government and was instrumental in turning public opinion in favor of the Revolution. 

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Natural Rights Philosophy

Proposed by John Locke; said that humans had by nature certain rights, such as rights to life, liberty, and property. 

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King George III

 Became King of England in 1760, and reigned during the American Revolution. 

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Richard Henry Lee’s Resolution

Stated that the colonies should be independent and sever all political ties with Britain. It was adopted by Congress and was the first step towards independence. 

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Thomas Jefferson

He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States. 

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Declaration of Independence

Signed by the Second Continental Congress on July 4. It dissolved the colonies' ties with Britain, listed grievances against King George III, and declared colonies to be an independent nation. 

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Abigail Adams

Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create. 

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 French major general who aided the colonies during the Revolutionary War. He and Baron von Steuben (a Prussian general) were the two major foreign military experts who helped train the colonial armies. 

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George Rogers Clark

Frontiersman who helped remove the Indians from the Illinois territory in May, 1798. 

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Benedict Arnold

He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.

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John Paul Jones

 Revolutionary War naval officer. His ship, the Bonhomme Richard, was sunk in a battle with the British ship Serapis, but he managed to board and gain control of the Serapis. 

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French Alliance of 1778

The colonies needed help from Europe in their war against Britain. France was Britain's rival and hoped to weaken Britain by causing her to lose the American colonies. The French were persuaded to support the colonists by news of the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga. 

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In 1777, British General John Burgoyne attacked southward from Canada along the Hudson Valley in New York, hoping to link up with General Howe in New York City, thereby cutting the colonies in half. Burgoyne was defeated by American General Horatio Gates on October 17, 1777, at the Battle of Saratoga, surrendering the entire British Army of the North. Valley Forge: site where the Continental Army camped during the winter of 1777- '78, after its defeats at the Battles of the Brandywine and Germantown. The Continental Army suffered further casualties at Valley Forge due to cold and disease. Washington chose the site because it allowed him to defend the Continental Congress if necessary, which was then meeting in York, Pennsylvania after the British capture of Philadelphia.

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Because of their lack of success in suppressing the Revolution in the northern colonies. In early 1780 the British switched their strategy and undertook a series of campaigns through the southern colonies. This strategy was equally unsuccessful, and the British decided to return to their main headquarters in New York City. While marching from Virginia to New York, British commander Lord Cornwallis became trapped in Yorktown on the Chesapeake Bay. His troops fortified the town and waited for reinforcements. The French navy, led by DeGrasse, blocked their escape. After a series of battles, Cornwallis surrendered to the Continental Army on October 19, 1781, which ended all major fighting in the Revolutionary War. 

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Treaty of Paris, 1783

This treaty ended the Revolutionary War. recognized the independence of the American colonies, granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River. 

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Articles of Confederation

delegated most of the powers to the individual states, but left the federal government power over war, foreign policy, and issuing. money. weakness was that they gave the federal government so little power that it couldn't keep the country united. The only major success was settling western land claims with the Northwest Ordinance.  

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The document which established the present federal government of the United States and outlined its powers. It can be changed through amendments. 

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Constitution: Legislature

One of the three branches of government, the legislature makes laws. There are two parts to the legislature: the House of Representatives and the Senate. 

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House of Representatives

One of the two parts of Congress, considered the "lower house." Representatives are elected directly by the people, with the number of representatives for each state determined by the state's population. 

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The other of the two parts of Congress, considered the "upper house." Senators were originally appointed by state legislatures, but now they are elected directly by the people. Each state has two senators.

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Supremacy clause

Article VI of the Constitution, which declares the Constitution, all federal laws passed pursuant to its provisions, and all federal treaties, to be the "supreme law of the land," which override any state laws or state constitutional provisions to the contrary.  

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Checks and balances

Each of the three branches of government "checks" the power of the other two, so no one can become too powerful. The president can veto laws passed by Congress, and also chooses the judges on the Supreme Court. Congress can overturn a presidential veto if 2/3 of the members vote to do so. The Supreme Court can declare laws passed by Congress and the president unconstitutional, and hence invalid. 

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Separation of Power

Powers of the government are divided between 3 branches: the executive, the legislative, and the judiciary.

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Northwest posts

 British fur-trading posts in the Northwest Territory. Their presence in the U.S. led to continued British-American conflicts.

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Land Ordinance of 1785

 A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land.

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Northwest Ordinance of 1787

A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Set up the framework of a government for the Northwest territory. Provided that the Territory would be divided into 3 to 5 states, outlawed slavery in the Territory, and set 60,000 as the minimum population for statehood. 

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Shay’s Rebellion

 Occurred in the winter of 1786-7 under the Articles of Confederation. Poor, indebted landowners in Massachusetts blocked access to courts and prevented the government from arresting or repossessing the property of those in debt. The federal government was too weak to help Boston remove the rebels, a sign that the Articles of Confederation weren't working effectively. 

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Noah Webster

Wrote some of the first dictionaries and spellers in the U.S. His books, which became the standard for the U.S., promoted American spellings and pronunciations, rather than British. 

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Constitutional Convention

Beginning on May 25, 1787, the convention recommended by the Annapolis Convention was held in Philadelphia. All of the states except Rhode Island sent delegates, and George Washington served as president of the convention. The convention lasted 16 weeks, and on September 17, 1787, produced the present Constitution of the United States, which was drafted largely by James Madison. 

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James Madison

 "Father of the Constitution": His proposals for an effective government became the Virginia Plan, which was the basis for the Constitution. He was responsible for drafting most of the language of the Constitution. 

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Great Compromise

an agreement reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation each state would have under the United States Constitution.

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Virginia Plan

called for a two-house Congress with each state's representation based on state population.

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New Jersey Plan

called for a one-house Congress in which each state had equal representation.

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Connecticut Plan

called for a two-house Congress in which both types of representation would be applied, and is also known as the Compromise Plan.

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North-South Compromises

The North was given full federal protection of trade and commerce. The South was given permanent relief from export taxes and a guarantee that the importation of slaves would not be halted for at least 20 years, plus the national capitol was placed in the South. Slaves were also deemed to be counted as 3/5 of a person when determining the state population, thus giving the Southern states a greater number of representatives in the House. 

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3/5 clause

Slaves were considered 3/5 of a person when determining the state population. 

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Beard thesis

Charles Austin Beard wrote in 1913 that the Constitution was written not to ensure a democratic government for the people, but to protect the economic interests of its writers, and specifically to benefit wealthy financial speculators who had purchased Revolutionary War government bonds through the creation of a strong national government that could insure the bonds repayment.

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opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation.

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The Federalist Papers

This collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance of a strong central government. It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution. 

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The Federalist, # 10

This essay from the Federalist Papers proposed setting up a republic to solve the problems of a large democracy.

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Bill of Rights

The first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guarantee basic îndividual rights. 

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Judiciary Act (1789)

Created the federal court system, allowed the president to create federal courts and to appoint judges. 

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Alexander Hamilton

 A leading Federalist, he supported industry and strong central government. He created the National Bank and managed to pay off the U.S.'s early debts through tariffs and the excise tax on whiskey. 

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Hamilton’s Program

Designed to pay off U.S.'s war debts and stabilize the economy; believed that the US should become a leading international commercial power. His programs included the creation of the National Bank, the establishment of the U.S.'s credit rate, increased tariffs, and an excise tax on whiskey. Also insisted that federal government assume debts incurred by the states during the war. 

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Excise taxes

Taxes placed on manufactured products. The excise tax on whiskey helped raise revenue for Hamilton's program.

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report on manufactures

A document submitted to Congress written by Hamilton, which set up an economic policy to encourage industry. 

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elastic clause

Section 8 of Article I contains a long list of powers specifically granted to Congress, and ends with the statement that Congress shall also have the power "to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the forgoing powers." These unspecified powers are known as Congress' "implied" powers. There has long been a debate as to how much power this clause grants to Congress, which is sometimes referred to as the "elastic" clause because it can be "stretched" to include almost any other power that Congress might try to assert. 

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loose interpretation of the constitution

Allows the government to do anything which the Constitution does not specifically forbid it from doing

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Strict interpretation of the constitution

Forbids the government from doing anything except what the Constitution specifically empowers it to do. 

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Whiskey Rebellion

In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem. in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion. 

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Citizen Genêt

A French diplomat who came to the U.S. 1793 to ask the American government to send money and troops to aid the revolutionaries in the French Revolution. President Washington asked France to recall Genêt after Genêt began recruiting men and arming ships in U.S. ports. However, Washington later relented and allowed Genêt U.S. citizenship upon learning that the new French government planned to arrest Genêt. 178. French Alliance of 1778: France aided the U.S. in the American Revolution, and the U.S. agreed to aid France if the need ever arose. Although France could have used American aid during the French Revolution, the U.S. didn't do anything to help. The U.S. didn't fulfill their part of the agreement until World War I. 

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French Revolution

 The second great democratic revolution, taking place in the 1790s, after the American Revolution had been proven to be a success. The U.S. did nothing to aid either side. The French people overthrew the king and his government, and then instituted a series of unsuccessful democratic governments until Napoleon took over as dictator in 1799. 180. Neutrality Proclamation: Washington's declaration that the U.S. would not take sides after the French Revolution touched off a war between France and a coalition consisting primarily of England, Austria and Prussia. Washington's Proclamation was technically a violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. 

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Jay's Treaty: 1794

It was signed in the hopes of settling the growing conflicts between the U.S. and Britain. It dealt with the Northwest posts and trade on the Mississippi River. It was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britain for the attacks on neutral American ships. It was particularly unpopular with France, because the U.S. also accepted the British restrictions on the rights of neutrals. 

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Pinckney's Treaty: 1795

Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans.

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"Mad" Anthony Wayne

one of the leading generals of the Continental Army, and had played a crucial role in the defeat of Cornwallis at Yorktown.

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Battle of Fallen Timbers

In the early 1790's, the British held trading posts in the Ohio Valley and encouraged the local Indian tribes to attack the Americans. Led by Wayne, the Americans defeated the Miami Indians in the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794 near what is today Toledo, Ohio. This paved the way for American settlement of the Ohio Valley.

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Washington’s Farewell Address

 He warned against the dangers of political parties and foreign alliances.

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Election of 1796

The first true election (when Washington ran, there was never any question that he would be elected). Adams was a Federalist (and won), but Jefferson was a Democratic-Republican. 

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Federalists (political party)

believed in a strong central government, a strong army, industry, and loose interpretation of the Constitution.

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believed in a weak central government, state and individual rights, and strict interpretation of the Constitution.

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XYZ Affair

A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand's three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters "X, Y and Z" for the names of the three French agents in his report to Congress. 

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Undeclared naval war with France

Late 1790s - Beginning in 1794, the French had begun seizing American vessels in retaliation for Jay's Treaty, so Congress responded by ordering the navy to attack any French ships on the American coast. The conflict became especially violent after the X,Y, Z Affair. A peace convention in 500 with the newly installed dictator, Napoleon, ended the conflict. 

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British seizure of American ships

France blocked English ports during the Napoleonic Wars of the early 1800s; England responded by blocking French ports. The British seized neutral American merchant ships which tried to trade at French ports. 

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Alien and Sedition Acts

These consist of four laws passed by me Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798; increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years, empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens, allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at war with the US, and made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials.

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Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional. 

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