Science 2.1 "How Are Plants Classified?"

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vascular system

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vascular system

it moves water + nutrients from one part of this type of system to another by the processes of diffusion + osmosis

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<p>xylem</p>
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<p>xylem</p>

xylem

it transports water + inorganic nutrients, such as nitrogen + minerals, from the roots to the rest of the plant

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<p>phloem</p>
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<p>phloem</p>

phloem

it transports the food, that the plant makes, to all the cells, including its roots

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<p>nonvascular plants</p>
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<p>nonvascular plants</p>

nonvascular plants

  • plants without a vascular system to move water + nutrients (no xylem/phloem)

  • absorbs water + nutrients instead (through diffusion + osmosis)

  • tend to live in damp environments

  • no vascular tissue to support plant (so they are usually only 2-3cm)

ex: moss, liverwort

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<p>gymnosperm</p>
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<p>gymnosperm</p>

gymnosperm

  • vascular plants (mostly trees) that produce seeds that aren't enclosed in fleshy fruits

  • these structures in pollination become eggs in female cones + are fertilized by the sperm in pollen from the males cone from tree branches

  • after fertilization, the female cone falls to the ground so the seeds can be deposited in the soil

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<p>angiosperm</p>
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<p>angiosperm</p>

angiosperm

vascular plants that prouduce seeds in the ovaries of flowers

  • some seed bearing plants have flowers that contain both female + male parts; they fertilize their own gametes (egg + sperm)

  • other plants have separate female + male parts; they have to reproduce through pollinators (bees/butterflies) that carry pollen from male flower to female flower + have the female egg fertilized by the sperm in male pollen

  • once gamete is fertilized, the plant develops fruit to protect the growing seed

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<p>spore</p>
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<p>spore</p>

spore

<p>spore</p>
  • a reproductive cell that can develop into a new individual without being fertilized

  • used for reproduction if plants don’t use seeds

  • in non-vascular (ex: moss) + vascular plants (ex: fern)

  • single-celled

-small and can be blown in the wind or carried by something (animal) to another location

  • it can survive poor condition + will produce organisms when conditions are right

<ul><li><p>a reproductive cell that can develop into a new individual without being fertilized</p></li><li><p>used for reproduction if plants don’t use seeds</p></li><li><p>in non-vascular (ex: moss) + vascular plants (ex: fern)</p></li><li><p>single-celled</p></li></ul><p>-small and can be blown in the wind or carried by something (animal) to another location</p><ul><li><p>it can survive poor condition + will produce organisms when conditions are right</p></li></ul>
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<p>sporophyte</p>
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<p>sporophyte</p>

sporophyte

<p>sporophyte</p>
  • term means, "spore plant"

  • it is the form of a plant that produces spores during one part of the two-part reproduction cycle

  • the dominant stage of vascular plant life cycle

<ul><li><p>term means, &quot;spore plant&quot;</p></li><li><p>it is the form of a plant that produces spores during one part of the two-part reproduction cycle</p></li><li><p>the dominant stage of vascular plant life cycle</p></li></ul>
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<p>gametophyte</p>
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<p>gametophyte</p>

gametophyte

<p>gametophyte</p>
  • means "gamete plant"

-it is a generation of plants that produce gametes

-it is the form of a plant that develops from a spore in the second part of the two-part reproduction cycle

-it is the dominant stage of nonvascular plant life cycle

<ul><li><p>means &quot;gamete plant&quot;</p></li></ul><p>-it is a generation of plants that produce gametes</p><p>-it is the form of a plant that develops from a spore in the second part of the two-part reproduction cycle</p><p>-it is the dominant stage of nonvascular plant life cycle</p>
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<p>gametes</p>
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<p>gametes</p>

gametes

<p>gametes</p>

a male (sperm) or female (egg) reproductive cell

<p>a male (sperm) or female (egg) reproductive cell</p>
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<p>zygote</p>
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<p>zygote</p>

zygote

<p>zygote</p>

-it is formed when sperm and eggs are gametes, and they unite. -this then later develops into an embryo

<p>-it is formed when sperm and eggs are gametes, and they unite. -this then later develops into an embryo</p>
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<p>sori</p>
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<p>sori</p>

sori

<p>sori</p>

the reproductive structures of the sporophyte -it is often found on the underside of a fern

<p>the reproductive structures of the sporophyte -it is often found on the underside of a fern</p>
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<p>frond</p>
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<p>frond</p>

frond

the leaf of a fern

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<p>sporangia</p>
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<p>sporangia</p>

sporangia

<p>sporangia</p>

the structures on each sorus that produce spores

<p>the structures on each sorus that produce spores</p>
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domain Eukarya

has multicellular organisms like kingdom Protista, Fungi, Animalia, + Plantae

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two main characteristics

  • based on how plants are classified: if they have vascular tissue or seeds

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ways of transporting nutrients

  1. through the vascular system: plants w/ vascular tissue

  2. through the non-vascular system: plants w/ out vascular tissue

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vascular plant

  • has vascular tissue

  • use xylem + phloem to move nutrients + materials from roots, stems, leaves + back

  • use diffusion + osmosis

  • can grow to a great height due to vascular tissues support (ex: North America Redwoods more than 100 meters)

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Plants

  • needs nutrients to live (like all living organisms)

  • they rely on diffusion + osmosis to absorb water + nutrients -produce food through photosynthesis

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diffusion

  • the natural tendency of molecules to move from an area of of great concentration to an area of lesser concentration

  • method used when gases exchange during photosynthesis

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osmosis

  • water being diffused across a semipermeable membrane (plant cell)

  • during this process, only water moves across the membrane

  • water moved both ways across membrane until concentration of other substances are the same

  • process is in work when roots absorb water + when the plant moves water upward to the rest of its structures

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method of reproduction

vascular plants that produce through:

  1. gymnosperms

  2. angiosperms

plants are classified by these methods

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gymnosperm examples

pine + cedar trees, shrubs, pygmy pine, Morman tea bush

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alternation of generations

the two-phased reproduction cycle progess in all plants, where it alernates between a spore (sporophyte) + a gamete (gametophyte)

1: the plant reproduces spores (sporophyte generation)

2: the spores develop into a new plant (gametophyte generation) + produce gametes (egg + sperm) that unite, creating a zygote which then becomes an embryo

-the embryo will become a sporophyte + the cycle will start over again

(cycle is different for vascular + non-vascular plants

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alternation of generations in mosses

gametophyte stage is the dominant stage in non-vascular plants:

  1. mature gametophyte produces gametes (egg + sperm)

  2. sperm swims in water to egg + combine to form a zygote which develops into a sporophyte plant

  3. sporophyte plant grows out of gametophyte plant

  4. spore that grows at the end of a thin stalk gets enclosed in a capsule + is released when matured

  5. spores fall on ground + germinates to create a protonema which will turn to a gametophyte plant (and the cycle restarts)

<p>gametophyte stage is the dominant stage in non-vascular plants:</p><ol><li><p>mature gametophyte produces gametes (egg + sperm)</p></li><li><p>sperm swims in water to egg + combine to form a zygote which develops into a sporophyte plant</p></li><li><p>sporophyte plant grows out of gametophyte plant</p></li><li><p>spore that grows at the end of a thin stalk gets enclosed in a capsule + is released when matured</p></li><li><p>spores fall on ground + germinates to create a protonema which will turn to a gametophyte plant (and the cycle restarts)</p></li></ol>
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angiosperm examples

marigold, oranges, water lillies

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<p>alternation of generations in a fern</p>
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<p>alternation of generations in a fern</p>

alternation of generations in a fern

sporophyte stage is the dominant stage in vascular plants:

  1. reproductive structures (sori) of sporophyte located on the frond (leaf of a fern) contain sporangia that produce spores that fall on the ground

  2. spores germinate when conditions are right + become a prothallus (a gametophyte plant)

  3. gametophyte plant produces the male + female reproductive structures (egg + sperm). sperm swims to fertilize the egg + become a zygote, which becomes a sporophyte plant

  4. tiny sporophyte grows + develops fronds + a rhizome (underground stem). when fronds are mature, the sori release spores (and the cycle restarts)

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