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<p>Brooklyn Bridge - Brooklyn, NY</p>

Brooklyn Bridge - Brooklyn, NY

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<p>Brooklyn Bridge - Brooklyn, NY</p>

Brooklyn Bridge - Brooklyn, NY

Engineer's Aesthetic Architect(s): John & Washington Roebling Date: 1880 Aesthetic contrast Masonry work Pointed forms

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Bibliotheque Sainte-Geneveive, Paris, France

Engineer's Aesthetic Architect(s): Henri Labrouste Date: 1855 - 1896 Windows with various sizes Expressive cast-iron structure Mottos on the walls 2 Hidden buttresses Hidden staircase and circulations natural light contemporary use

<p>Engineer&apos;s Aesthetic Architect(s): Henri Labrouste Date: 1855 - 1896 Windows with various sizes Expressive cast-iron structure Mottos on the walls 2 Hidden buttresses Hidden staircase and circulations natural light contemporary use</p>
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3

Great Stove (Lily House), Chatsworth

Engineer's Aesthetic Architect(s): Joseph Paxton Date: 1836 - 1840 Ridge-and-furrow Tropical plants

<p>Engineer&apos;s Aesthetic Architect(s): Joseph Paxton Date: 1836 - 1840 Ridge-and-furrow Tropical plants</p>
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Crystal Palace, Hyde Park, London

Engineer's Aesthetic Architect(s): Joseph Paxton, Charles Fox Date: 1851 Prince Albert’s role played in promoting the first Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations Transept and preservation of existing elm trees Owen Jones, superintendent of color and exhibition layout Glazing wagons Details of structure, pay attention to the “connecting piece,” and other building machinery Testing to make sure the structure is safe and sound Crystal Palace as sign of the realization of the unity of mankind Division of labor The building marks “the break between two radically different eras in the history of building”: dissolution of architectonic contours; size is no longer important, proportions is no longer important. The size of the building was determined by the number of unit components and building could be larger or smaller. New spatial perception: endless space, endless perspective, diffuse and blue; the total absence of shadows Crystal Palace as rebuilt in Sydenham, 1854, and destroyed by fire, 1936 Walter Benjamin, “Paris, the Capital of the Nineteenth Century” 6 millions people visited the exhibition during the 5.5 months opening period

<p>Engineer&apos;s Aesthetic Architect(s): Joseph Paxton, Charles Fox Date: 1851 Prince Albert’s role played in promoting the first Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations Transept and preservation of existing elm trees Owen Jones, superintendent of color and exhibition layout Glazing wagons Details of structure, pay attention to the “connecting piece,” and other building machinery Testing to make sure the structure is safe and sound Crystal Palace as sign of the realization of the unity of mankind Division of labor The building marks “the break between two radically different eras in the history of building”: dissolution of architectonic contours; size is no longer important, proportions is no longer important. The size of the building was determined by the number of unit components and building could be larger or smaller. New spatial perception: endless space, endless perspective, diffuse and blue; the total absence of shadows Crystal Palace as rebuilt in Sydenham, 1854, and destroyed by fire, 1936 Walter Benjamin, “Paris, the Capital of the Nineteenth Century” 6 millions people visited the exhibition during the 5.5 months opening period</p>
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Eiffel Tower, Paris, France

Engineer's Aesthetic Architect(s): Gustave Eiffel Date: 1889 Suspended stairs within the Eiffel Tower connecting the ground floor to the first floor platform Otis elevator cabins

<p>Engineer&apos;s Aesthetic Architect(s): Gustave Eiffel Date: 1889 Suspended stairs within the Eiffel Tower connecting the ground floor to the first floor platform Otis elevator cabins</p>
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Mill Town of New Lanark, Scotland

Visions for Reform and Arts and Crafts Movement Architect(s): Robert Owen Date: 1816 The site is very important, the landscape, school, cooperative shops are important. The child and education. He belives that human characters are very much shaped by environments. By controlling environment individuals characters can be developed and therefore this would lead to a better social order

<p>Visions for Reform and Arts and Crafts Movement Architect(s): Robert Owen Date: 1816 The site is very important, the landscape, school, cooperative shops are important. The child and education. He belives that human characters are very much shaped by environments. By controlling environment individuals characters can be developed and therefore this would lead to a better social order</p>
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Phalanstery

Visions for Reform and Arts and Crafts Movement Architect(s): Charles Fourier Date: 1847 modeled after Versailles superior than the royal palace Walter Benjamin’s comment on Fourier’s utopian idea: “the highly complicated organization of the phalanstery appears as machinery.. this mechanism made of men produces the land of milk and honey, the primeval wish symbol that Fourier’s utopia has filled with new lift.”

<p>Visions for Reform and Arts and Crafts Movement Architect(s): Charles Fourier Date: 1847 modeled after Versailles superior than the royal palace Walter Benjamin’s comment on Fourier’s utopian idea: “the highly complicated organization of the phalanstery appears as machinery.. this mechanism made of men produces the land of milk and honey, the primeval wish symbol that Fourier’s utopia has filled with new lift.”</p>
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8

Familistere, Guise

Visions for Reform and Arts and Crafts Movement Architect(s): Jean-Baptiste Andre Godin Date: 1859 - 1865 The factory owner himself acted as the architect, thoughtful design: “the ideal of progress must be embodied in a superior form of architecture which shall be the simple house what the factory is to the small workshop.” units, enclosed courtyard Panopticon prison by Jeremy Bentham, 1748-1832 Worker’s festival in the central courtyard Nursery and kindergarten, theater and school Light, pure air, and space being the necessities for new social life and enlightenment

<p>Visions for Reform and Arts and Crafts Movement Architect(s): Jean-Baptiste Andre Godin Date: 1859 - 1865 The factory owner himself acted as the architect, thoughtful design: “the ideal of progress must be embodied in a superior form of architecture which shall be the simple house what the factory is to the small workshop.” units, enclosed courtyard Panopticon prison by Jeremy Bentham, 1748-1832 Worker’s festival in the central courtyard Nursery and kindergarten, theater and school Light, pure air, and space being the necessities for new social life and enlightenment</p>
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The Palace of Westminster, Westminster, London

Visions for Reform and Arts and Crafts Movement Architect(s): Charles Barry, August Pugin Date: 1837 - 1870 Elizabeth Tower and Victoria Tower 4 “All Grecian, Sir; Tudor details on a classical body,” (Pugin) Barry responsible for the general design and Pugin responsible for all the interiors and details

<p>Visions for Reform and Arts and Crafts Movement Architect(s): Charles Barry, August Pugin Date: 1837 - 1870 Elizabeth Tower and Victoria Tower 4 “All Grecian, Sir; Tudor details on a classical body,” (Pugin) Barry responsible for the general design and Pugin responsible for all the interiors and details</p>
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Red House, Bexleyheath, London

Visions for Reform and Arts and Crafts Movement Architect(s): Philip Webb, William Morris Date: 1860 Integration with the site and local culture, and its structural integrity The ambition to establish a community for working and living Build a house, with brick appearance and asymmetrical layout. And refused the idea of standardization

<p>Visions for Reform and Arts and Crafts Movement Architect(s): Philip Webb, William Morris Date: 1860 Integration with the site and local culture, and its structural integrity The ambition to establish a community for working and living Build a house, with brick appearance and asymmetrical layout. And refused the idea of standardization</p>
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Hill House, Helensburgh, Scotland

Art Nouveau Architect(s): Margaret MacDonald Mackintosh Date: 1903 Never seen anything like this building before Not many ornaments Slanted chimney Free interior and exterior

<p>Art Nouveau Architect(s): Margaret MacDonald Mackintosh Date: 1903 Never seen anything like this building before Not many ornaments Slanted chimney Free interior and exterior</p>
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School of Art, Glasgow, Scotland

Art Nouveau Architect(s): Charles Rennie Mackintosh Date: 1896 - 1909 Glasgow School of Art’s library was considered one of the finest rooms in Britain before the fire that destroyed it 2014

<p>Art Nouveau Architect(s): Charles Rennie Mackintosh Date: 1896 - 1909 Glasgow School of Art’s library was considered one of the finest rooms in Britain before the fire that destroyed it 2014</p>
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13

Willow Tearooms, Glasgow, Scotland

Art Nouveau Architect(s): Charles Rennie Mackintosh Date: 1903

<p>Art Nouveau Architect(s): Charles Rennie Mackintosh Date: 1903</p>
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Tassel House, Brussels, Belgium

Art Nouveau Architect(s): Victor Horta Date: 1883 Iron beam with expressive rivets Art glass windows Columns with organic tendrils Linear features From column to the mosaic on the floor, biomorphic whiplash

<p>Art Nouveau Architect(s): Victor Horta Date: 1883 Iron beam with expressive rivets Art glass windows Columns with organic tendrils Linear features From column to the mosaic on the floor, biomorphic whiplash</p>
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15

Castel Beranger, Paris, France

Art Nouveau Architect(s): Hector Guimand Date: 1898 Elevations and staircases expressions Entrance Courtyards

<p>Art Nouveau Architect(s): Hector Guimand Date: 1898 Elevations and staircases expressions Entrance Courtyards</p>
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Metro Station, Paris, France

Art Nouveau Architect(s): Hector Guimand Date: 1900 Natural form (growth) Painted green not copper Typeface design Budding form and bony elements

<p>Art Nouveau Architect(s): Hector Guimand Date: 1900 Natural form (growth) Painted green not copper Typeface design Budding form and bony elements</p>
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17

Karlsplatz Stadtbahn, Vienna, Austria

Vienna, Otto Wagner, Adolf Loos Architect(s): Otto Wagner Date: 1898 Vienna Secession: The Viennese version of art Nouveau AKA the Union of Austrian Artists Still some sort of historicist reference Complex decorations

<p>Vienna, Otto Wagner, Adolf Loos Architect(s): Otto Wagner Date: 1898 Vienna Secession: The Viennese version of art Nouveau AKA the Union of Austrian Artists Still some sort of historicist reference Complex decorations</p>
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Majolika House and Medallion House, Vienna, Austria

Vienna, Otto Wagner, Adolf Loos Architect(s): Otto Wagner Date: 1899 Flora decoration Elevation reflects interior functions Expressive aluminum bolts Expressive lion gates

<p>Vienna, Otto Wagner, Adolf Loos Architect(s): Otto Wagner Date: 1899 Flora decoration Elevation reflects interior functions Expressive aluminum bolts Expressive lion gates</p>
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Postal Savings Bank, Vienna Austria

Vienna, Otto Wagner, Adolf Loos Architect(s): Otto Wagner Date: 1906 Both bank and post office Symmetrical, rational plan layout Banking hall, light, materials, clean, minimum maintenance, glass tiles, hot air blowers Exterior tiles, expressive bolts (no structural purpose) “What is impractical can never be beautiful.” (Wagner)

<p>Vienna, Otto Wagner, Adolf Loos Architect(s): Otto Wagner Date: 1906 Both bank and post office Symmetrical, rational plan layout Banking hall, light, materials, clean, minimum maintenance, glass tiles, hot air blowers Exterior tiles, expressive bolts (no structural purpose) “What is impractical can never be beautiful.” (Wagner)</p>
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20

Goldman and Salatsch Building, Vienna, Austria

Vienna, Otto Wagner, Adolf Loos Architect(s): Adolf Loos Date: 1910

<p>Vienna, Otto Wagner, Adolf Loos Architect(s): Adolf Loos Date: 1910</p>
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21

Muller House, Prague

Vienna, Otto Wagner, Adolf Loos Architect(s): Adolf Loos Date: 1930 Raumplan (spatial planning)

<p>Vienna, Otto Wagner, Adolf Loos Architect(s): Adolf Loos Date: 1930 Raumplan (spatial planning)</p>
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22

World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago

The 19th-century American Architecture Date: 1893 Daniel H. Burnham (1846-1912) & John W. Root (1850-1891) (master plan); Fredrick Law Olmstead (landscape); “White City” Robert Morris Hunt, Administration Building Robert Swain Peabody, Machinery Hall Dankmar Adler (1844-1900) & Louis Sullivan (1856-1924), Transportation Building Sophie Hayden (1868-1953), Woman’s Building Sullivan’s criticism of the Chicago Columbian Exposition The Japanese Phoenix Pavilion, Wooden Island, the Chicago Columbian Exposition

<p>The 19th-century American Architecture Date: 1893 Daniel H. Burnham (1846-1912) &amp; John W. Root (1850-1891) (master plan); Fredrick Law Olmstead (landscape); “White City” Robert Morris Hunt, Administration Building Robert Swain Peabody, Machinery Hall Dankmar Adler (1844-1900) &amp; Louis Sullivan (1856-1924), Transportation Building Sophie Hayden (1868-1953), Woman’s Building Sullivan’s criticism of the Chicago Columbian Exposition The Japanese Phoenix Pavilion, Wooden Island, the Chicago Columbian Exposition</p>
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23

Auditorium Building, Chicago

The 19th-century American Architecture Architect(s): Dankmar Adler, Louis Sullivan Date: 1889 The influence of Henry Hobson Richardson’s Marshall Field’s Wholesale Store, 1885-87 Palazzo as the prototype for Chicago skyscrapers Sullivan’s idea of “form follows function” Raft foundation on marshy soil grand auditorium hall rich detail showcase the compression of structure, resembling the Frank Furness’s architecture

<p>The 19th-century American Architecture Architect(s): Dankmar Adler, Louis Sullivan Date: 1889 The influence of Henry Hobson Richardson’s Marshall Field’s Wholesale Store, 1885-87 Palazzo as the prototype for Chicago skyscrapers Sullivan’s idea of “form follows function” Raft foundation on marshy soil grand auditorium hall rich detail showcase the compression of structure, resembling the Frank Furness’s architecture</p>
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24

Wainwright Building, St. Louis

The 19th-century American Architecture Architect(s): Dankmar Adler, Louis Sullivan Date: 1891 Urbanist palazzo “tripartite” Decorations Expressive structural frame

<p>The 19th-century American Architecture Architect(s): Dankmar Adler, Louis Sullivan Date: 1891 Urbanist palazzo “tripartite” Decorations Expressive structural frame</p>
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25

Home Insurance Building, Chicago

The Chicago Frame Architect(s): William Le Baron Jenney Date: 1885 Enlarged by adding 2 floors after design (1891) The intent of obtaining “a large number of small offices provided with the abundance of light…” Palazzo plan Five criteria for being considered “skyscraper” building type: 1. Structural system must be self-supporting 2. the load of brick and stone enclosure must be carried by the frame structure 3. strong enough to against the wind 4.if necessary, the enclosure system can start from the 2nd floor 5. the thickness of the wall has to be consistent

<p>The Chicago Frame Architect(s): William Le Baron Jenney Date: 1885 Enlarged by adding 2 floors after design (1891) The intent of obtaining “a large number of small offices provided with the abundance of light…” Palazzo plan Five criteria for being considered “skyscraper” building type: 1. Structural system must be self-supporting 2. the load of brick and stone enclosure must be carried by the frame structure 3. strong enough to against the wind 4.if necessary, the enclosure system can start from the 2nd floor 5. the thickness of the wall has to be consistent</p>
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26

The Rookery Building, Chicago

The Chicago Frame Architect(s): John Wellborn Root, Daniel Burnham, Frank Lloyd Wright Date: 1885 - 1888 Palazzo plan, decoration, and candid use of materials

<p>The Chicago Frame Architect(s): John Wellborn Root, Daniel Burnham, Frank Lloyd Wright Date: 1885 - 1888 Palazzo plan, decoration, and candid use of materials</p>
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27

Monadnock Building, Chicago

The Chicago Frame Architect(s): John Wellborn Root, Daniel Burnham Date: 1891 No steel frame, hence not a skyscraper Massive wall base as thick as 6 ft Cornice resembles Egyptian column capital’s papyrus form Passion to sell Alternating pattern on elevation due to the unique treatment

<p>The Chicago Frame Architect(s): John Wellborn Root, Daniel Burnham Date: 1891 No steel frame, hence not a skyscraper Massive wall base as thick as 6 ft Cornice resembles Egyptian column capital’s papyrus form Passion to sell Alternating pattern on elevation due to the unique treatment</p>
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