Chinese Civil War (copy)

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1

foreign devils

This is what the Chinese people called foreign countries who exploited China economically. The growing middle classes were fond of nationalism and keeping foreign influence out (appeal of GMD)

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2

foreign concessions/foreign enclaves

Britain, France, and Japan had lots of influence in China, so they could set their own taxes, tariffs, and laws in these places in China

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3

International Settlement

This was in Shanghai and was an independent city outside of Chinese law (foreign concession/enclave example)

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4

bourgeois classes (national bourgeoisie)

This is what the CCP wanted to remove property/privilege from in their restructuring of society

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5

petite bourgeoisie

Businesspeople/capitalists that run a modest company (lower middle class)

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6

Marxism

Argues for a worker's revolution against capitalism for a communist society. Mao diverged from this school of thought in that he wanted peasants to do the revolution, not proletariat since China barely had an industrialized society

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7

proletariat

the working class in an industrialized society - China was missing this aspect of Marxism since they were not industrialized enough

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8

guerrilla-style campaign

The style the CCP adopted throughout the entirety of the war.

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9

Mobile defense

CCP shifted strategy to this after Nationalists got cities. This was the defense of existing territories using guerilla-style operations. Used small arms and weakened supply lines.

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10

conscripts

Both armies relied on these. Chiang made a general mobilization bill so Nationalists had unlimited conscription. CCP relied on peasants.

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11

recruitment gangs

Nationalists sent these to the country to get troops

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12

corvee labour

A forced labor tax on unpaid work, such as repair work, transporting food and ammunition

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13

cooperative farms

After CCP victory, these farms were established. The plots were individually owned but managed collectively.

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14

collective farms

Plots were not individually owned but managed collectively

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15

Generalissimo

Another name for Chiang Kai-shek since he was the commander in chief of the Nationalist army

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16

Pu Yi

He was the last emperor of the imperial Qing dynasty (its central authority collapsed)

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17

Yuan Shikai

This general became the dictator of China after the Revolution of 1911-1912. His rule led to the fragmentation of China with regional warlords.

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18

Sun Yatsen

This person established the Nationalist Party in 1912. His thinking also inspired the document "Three Principles of the People" which was written in the "Manifesto of the First National Congress of the Nationalist Party"

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19

Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi)

This person was the leader of the Nationalists since 1926. He was trained at the Military Academy of Whampoa and was second-in-command to Sun Yatsen. The majority of the Nationalist Party's rule and their role in the Civil War and the Second Sino-Japanese will be under him.

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20

General Ba Chongxi

This was an anti-Communist Nationalist Party general from Shanghai. During the White Terror, he commanded Nationalist forces in Shanghai and did nothing to oppose the horrific violence against Communists and protesting workers.

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21

Otto Braun

This man was a German Comintern advisor who was sent by the Soviet Union to advise the Communists on battle strategies during the Civil War. He advised that the Communists adopt traditional warfare tactics and abandon guerilla warfare, a suggestion that was ultimately unsuccessful and detrimental to the Communists. He left when CCP leadership sided with Mao instead.

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22

Mao Zedong

This person was the leader of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the ruler of China between 1949 and his death in 1976. He is often idolized in China and established an authoritarian surveillance state under his absolute control after the end of the war.

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23

Liu Wenhui

This person is a warlord from the Sichuan Province that was allied to the Nationalists. At the conflict at Luding Bridge, CCP troops fought against troops under this man's command.

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24

Yan Xishan

This was a warlord from Shanxi that Chiang Kai-Shek allied with.

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25

Zhang Xueliang

This was a warlord from Manchuria that Chiang Kai-Shek allied with. However, in the Xi'an Incident, he helped kidnap Chiang Kai-shek because he disagreed with his non-intervention stance regarding the Japanese.

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26

Dai Li

This man was a cadet of the Whampoa Military Academy that became head of the Investigation and Statistical Bureau, which was established by the Nationalist Party.

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27

Soongs

This family was the wealthy in-laws of Chiang Kai-shek. They were heavily promoted, and Chiang relied on them frequently for advice. Chiang's brother-in-law was his main financial advisor.

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28

General Joseph Stilwell

This was the U.S commanding officer in the China-India-Burma theater of World War II. He came to regard Chiang's military leadership as incompetent, corrupt, and cowardly.

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29

US Army Chief of Plans & Operations - General Albert C. Wedemeyer

This man criticized Chiang's strategy to reroute troops towards Manchuria, in an effort to race the CCP to control the region, before effectively securing northern China. He felt that the overextension of Chiang's forces made them vulnerable to Communist attacks.

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30

Lin Biao

This was a CCP military commander that reorganized, retrained, and re-equipped troops during the 4 month truce between Nationalists and the CCP. He transformed the small guerilla detachments into professional, larger-scale units that could successfully use artillery and engage in conventional large-scale battles.

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31

Fu Zuoyi

This was a Nationalist commander that decided to surrender Beijing on 16 January 1949 to Communist forces during the Pingjin Campaign.

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32

US Secretary of State Dean Acheson

This man expressed the view in August 1949 that the extent of assistance provided by the USA should have been enough to ensure a Nationalist victory, and the fact that this had not occurred was due to the tactical incompetence and corruption of the Nationalists themselves.

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33

Lin Biao

Marshall of the People's Republic of China. He commanded the CCP's forces during the Liaoshen and Pingjin campaigns and was influential in the CCP victory in Northeast China (Manchuria)

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34

George Marshall

This was the United States Special Envoy to China under President Harry Truman. He is more famously known as the US Secretary of State and Defense right after WWII and his efforts to economically rebuild post-war Europe. He tried to broker a peace agreement between the Communists and Nationalists in 1945, but both sides rejected his proposal and he returned to the US in 1947.

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35

Madame Chiang

This was the wife of Chiang Kai-shek. She was educated in the United States and was influential in securing international support for China during the Second Sino-Japanese War as seen in her speeches to Congress in the United States.

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36

"Three Principles of the People

It was identified in the First National Congress of the Nationalist Party and based on the thinking of Sun Yatsen. It comprised three sections nationalism, popular sovereignty, and the "principle of the people livelihood" that sought to improve the welfare of the people.

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37

" "Manifesto of the 1st National Congress of the Nationalist Party

The Three Principles of the People was identified in this in order to achieve a modern, unified, and independent China. It was held in January 1930.

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38

" "principle of the people's livelihood

It was a portion of the Three Principles of the People that sought to: redistribute some land, introduce a supply of credit to peasants without capital, introduce some state support (sick, old, and disabled), and to nationalize key industries (banking, railways, etc.).

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39

" Mao Zedong Thought

This is Mao's interpretation of Marxism. He wanted to make Marxism fit within China

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40

New Life Movement

This was the Nationalist's attempt to enact a strong moral code and respect for authority. It focused on respect for community and obedience in the hopes of strengthening GMD control.

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41

Treaty of Tanggu

Chiang Kai-shek and the nationalists reluctantly acknowledge Manchukuo's independence and agreed to a demilitarized zone between Beijing and the Great Wall in May 1933.

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42

trading space for time

This was Chiang's policy towards the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. It was seen as an excuse and as a weakness by the Chinese people.

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43

Strongpoint Offensive

This was launched by Chiang in May 1947. The GMD focused on securing key cities in central and eastern China in the Shandong, Shanxi, and Shaanxi provinces. The GMD forced the CCP out of almost all of the cities.

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44

urban strategic focus

The GMD strategy during the Strongpoint Offensive. It reflected Nationalist priorities and the GMD's neglect to build support in rural areas.

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45

social revolution

This was an aspect of the CCP that GMD propaganda focused on. It frightened the urban commercial and business elites.

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46

On New Democracy by Mao

Published in 1940, this was Mao's reflection that defined the revolution of the communists against the GMD as a national movement and not a class movement.

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47

general mobilization bill

This gave the GMD unrestricted powers of conscription. Recruitment gangs were sent to get troops from the countrysides often in brutal ways.

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48

Civil Code of 1930

A GMD law that comprised of prohibiting arranged marriages without the consent of the woman, wives being able to initiate divorce, and daughters getting equal inheritance to sons.

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49

labour law in 1931

A GMD law that stated that women should be paid the same rate as men for the same work.

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50

Marriage Law of May 1950

A CCP law that abolished arranged marriage, allowed the husband and wife to be able to seek divorce on equal terms, guaranteed equality in the management and inheritance of family property, and prohibited husbands from divorcing their wives if they were pregnant (they had to wait a year after the child's birth).

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51

Gansu and Shaanxi Provinces

In 1920-1921 a severe famine occurred here as a result of drought, killing 500,000.

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52

Hunan Province

Here, rents frequently constitute 70% of the value of crops. This left little money for peasants to survive and caused landlords to be unpopular.

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53

Shanghai

White terror in 1927, GMP tried to purge the CCP

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54

Canton

In 1931, Mao proclaimed the establishment of the Chinese Soviet Republic under his chairmanship in Ruijin, Jiangxi province.The CCP's 2nd action against the GMD here in December 1927. Thousands of communists were killed in GMD counterattacks.

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55

Jiangxi Soviet

was the central revolutionary base, used for training of CCP personal by the soviets. was originally established in 1931

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56

Yanan Province

became more important after the Long March and became the center of the Chinese communist revolution from late 1935 to early 1947. located in northwest china which made it difficult to attack

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57

Manchuria

place of constant conflict between CCP and GMD. Under control of Japan from 1932 to 1945

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58

puppet-state of Manchukuo

puppet state of the empire of japan in northeast China and inner Mongolia from 1932 to 1945; occurred during ww2

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59

Chongqing

bombed by Japan during ww2.The GMD capital was moved here after the Japanese took control of Nanjing.

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60

Shandong

dispute over article 156 of the treaty of Versailles after the first world war. Japan gained control of the territory

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61

Shenyang

where communist forces defeated the nationalists. Liaoshen campaign was the first of three major military campaigns launched by the communists against the nationalists during the late stages of the Chinese civil war.The USSR gave the CCP access to a Japanese arms depot here that contained 100,000 guns and artillery.

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62

Shanhaiguan pass

the place of CCP and Nationalist confrontation during second civil war.The first major confrontation of the CCP and GMD on 15-16 November 1945. The Red Army lost in this conventional style battle, which allowed the GMD to make rapid progress in Manchuria.

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63

Harbin

part of Japanese invasion of Manchuria. occurred early in the second Sino-Japanese war. The last CCP stronghold in Manchuria.

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64

Sangari River camp *

The CCP surprise attacked the GMD camped here in the winter of 1946-1047. This showed the transformation of the Red Army.

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65

Shijiazhuang in Hebei province

The first major city that the CCP successfully captured (12 November 1947)

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66

Siping

battle of territory, fought between communists and nationalists for control of siping during the Chinese civil war

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67

Separatist region of Tibet & Xinjiang

Mao wanted full authority, he sent Red Army troops to establish controls over region 1 and region 2. Additionally, these regions still strayed outside the effective control of the nationalists as they failed to incorporate them. Thus, these regions maintained their distinct ethnic and religious identities.

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68

Opium Wars

Took place between 1839-1842, the opium wars consisted of two wars between China and Britain due to the devastation that a drug trade had caused China. The war was waged between the Qing dynasty and Great Britain. The end of the war resulted in a one-sided treaty of Nanking on China Which caused the Chinese government to be weakened and opened specified treaty ports. China wanted foreign influences out.

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69

Taiping Rebellion

1850-1864, Most destructive war in China prior to the twentieth century. It was a rural rebellion that was inspired by Christianity ideology. Threatened To overthrow the Qing empire

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70

Hundred Days of Reform

11th June- September 1898 It was an attempt launched by the young emperor Guangxu, he wanted to modernize China by reforming of the government, economy, and society. However, the reform failed.

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71

Boxer Rebellion

1899-1901, The rebellion was an uprising of peasants within China, these peasants blamed foreign influences and institutions for the loss of traditional Chinese lifestyle. These rebels attacked westerners and initiated their rebellion with attacks on Christian missionaries.

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72

1st Sino-Japanese War

1894-1895, the war was between Japan and China and ended with Japanese victory. The conflict was started because of the opposing countries fighting for supremacy in Korea.

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73

Revolution of 1911 - 1912 (aka. Revolution of the Double Tenth)

1911-1912, a rebellion against the government within Sichuan Province. This was a successful revolt against the Qing Dynasty

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74

May 4th Movement (1919)

It was protesting against unequal treaties and turned into a cultural reformation. It was a student-led movement that promoted Anti-Japanese sentiment.

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75

The Northern Expedition

1926-1928, was a military campaign that was launched by the Chinese Nationalist Party, it was an attempt to unify China and subdue the power of the local warlords. The Nationalists party collaborated with the communists.

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76

White Terror

1927, It was Chiang's attempt to re-establish the authority of the Nationalist party. It led to the collapse of the United Front, with the purpose of purging communist organizations within Shanghai. Chiang establishes the nationalist government in Beijing.

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77

Autumn Harvest Uprising

one of 2 CCP's counterattacks against the Nationalist massacre in Shanghai; occurred in Hunan Province; skirmished between CCP forces and nationalist troops; Mao involved

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78

encirclement campaigns

Nationalist campaigns of attacking CCP rural bases by surrounding them, cutting off their supply lines, and subjecting them to a series of artillery and infantry-led assaults

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79

Fifth Encirclement Campaign

the only successful one of many Nationalist attacks against CCP; happened in Jianxi Soviet; won by sheer numbers

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80

Battle at Guangchang

CCP counterattack with conventional warfare and concentrated warfare; influenced by Soviet advisors; CCP outnumbered --> clear that defense in Jianxi not possible

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81

Long March

a legendary moment in CCP propaganda; long retreat across long distances and difficult terrain; clashes on the way

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82

clashes at Luding Bridge over the Dadu River

most famous clash in March; depicted as an epic struggle against warlord Liu Wenhui, an ally of NMD; actually, disputes about whether it took place or not

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83

Zunyi Conference (1935)

  • January 1935 during the Long March

  • declared that Mao was leader of the party.

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84

9 December Movement

students demonstrated against Japanese invasions and Chiang's response

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85

Xi'an Incident

the warlord Zhang Xueliang was supposed to attack a CCP base but instead turned on Chiang and kidnapped him. Chiang was released after agreeing to the Second United Front

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86

guerrilla campaigns

initiated against Japan by CCP

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87

Rectification of Conduct Campaigns

Mao punished those in CCP that criticized him

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88

Marco Polo Bridge

  • Chinese and Japanese clashed here

  • started second Sino-Japanese War

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89

Rape of Nanjing

Japanese captured this city and raped, tortured, and killed thousands of civilians

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90

capital moved to Chongqing

  • Nationalists moved to a new capital during second Sino-Japanese War

  • meant to be strategic, seen as weak

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91

Hundred Regiments Campaign

  • CCP attack on Jap

  • destroy rail

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92

Ichigo Offensive

Jap offense to sweep south

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93

Manchuria campaign

CCP captured many cities in Manchuria

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94

CCP's Haui-hai Campaign

campaign focus on cities

  • starved them out through winter and cut resources

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95

Pingjin Campaign

  • CCP decimates Nationalists

  • Chiang attempted peace talks, Mao says no

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96

surrender of Beijing

Fu Zuoyi surrendered it

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97

Dixie Mission

  • US visit to Yan'an in July 1944

  • effort to gather info and make relations w CCP

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98

Chiang Kai-shek to Taiwan

  • Chiang fled here after losing the war

  • Still claimed to be the official government

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99

Three-Antis Campaign of 1951

first campaign to eradicate CCP enemies

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100

Five-Antis Campaign of January 1952

second campaign to eradicate CCP enemies

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