Fountains Abbey

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When was the Monastic period?

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67 Terms

1

When was the Monastic period?

1132 - 1539

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2

When was the Dissolution period?

1539 - 1767

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3

When was the Aislabie period?

1767 - 1983

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4

When was the National Trust period?

1983 - Present

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5

What was the Chapter house?

A meeting room within the abbey complex. The monks met each morning here

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6

Who was a Cistercian?

A fully educated and trained monk who has taken his final vows of poverty, chastity and obedience

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7

What was the cloister?

The courtyard within the abbey complex, with a covered walkway where monks could walk, sit, read or study

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8

What was the dormitory?

Where the monks slept

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9

What was the infirmary?

Where the old or sick monks were cared for

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10

What was the latrine?

The toilets built over the river so that waste was immediately taken away

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11

Who were the Lay brothers?

- A person who has taken the vows of a religious order but is not obliged to take part in the full cycle of liturgy

- Employed in manual work

- Lack the education to become choir monks

- Wear brown robes

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12

What was the monastery?

Place of residence and worship of the monks - The Abbey

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13

What does monastic mean?

Time period relating directly to the time when the monks resided at Fountains Abbey

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14

What was the muniments room?

Located above the Warming House. Important accounts and documents are stored here

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15

What was the refectory?

Where the monks ate their meals in silence

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16

What was the transept?

Either of the two parts forming the arms of the cross shape, projecting at right angles from the nave

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17

What was the warming house?

The only source of heat in the Abbey from 1st November until Good Friday

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18

Why was Fountains Abbey founded?

In 1132, the Archbishop of York granted land in the Valley of the River Skell to 13 monks from St Mary's Abbey, York after they had become disillusioned with the way things were ran as it was not strict

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19

What advantages did Fountains Abbey offer?

- The river

- Fresh springs in the hill nearby

- Timber from the trees

- The stone in the cliffs

- Isolation from the distractions of village and town

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20

How did Fountains Abbey physically change over time during the monastic period?

- 1136 Wooden buildings begin being replaced by stone buildings, then larger ones built in 1150-70s

- 1211-47 Chapel of the nine altars completed + infirmary built

- 1316-36 Abbots house extended

- 1495-1526 Huby's Tower built

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21

How was Fountains Abbey used during the monastic period?

- Centre for prayer and contemplative life for the monks

-The Lay Brothers worked the land

- Becomes the richest Abbey in England due to the wool trade

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22

Describe the diversity of activities and people associated with Fountains Abbey during the monastic period?

- Monks: focus on prayer, canonical hours

- Lay brothers: physical labour looking after the fields, animals, etc

- Servants and workers

- Guests and patrons

- Merchants

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23

What were some of the reasons for the changes to Fountains Abbey and to the way it was used during the monastic period?

- Black Death (1348-49) led to loss of manpower and income, they also aided the sick

- End of the use of the lay brothers by 1300-50

- Abbey leased out granges for rent, leading to huge prosperity

- Financial growth led to impressive building works

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24

How did Fountains Abbey physically change during the National Trust period?

- Focus on visitor experience and conservation

- Maintained to preserve the buildings and gardens

- 1986 became a UNESCO world heritage site- The reason for this it that the abbey was considered part of Studley Royal Water Gardens

- Visitor centre opened in 1992

- 2008 Porter's lodge exhibition opened

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25

How was Fountains Abbey used during the National Trust period?

- Preservation and restoration of the buildings

- Conservation of the surrounding environment

- Education: tour guides, school groups, visitors information centre and exhibitions

- Used for weddings, tv programmers, etc

- Popular with artists and photographers

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26

Describe the diversity of activities and people associated with Fountains Abbey during the National Trust period?

- Tourism

- National Trust employees, including volunteers

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27

What are some of the reasons for the changes to Fountains Abbey and to the way it was used during the National Trust period?

- Key focus on education and development of educational centres

- NT motto "Forever, for everyone". Focus on preserving the past for future generations

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28

What are some of the most important turning points in Fountains Abbey?

- 1132: the foundation of the Abbey

- 1348-50: the Black Death which led to economic decline at the Abbey and reduced numbers of monks

- 1539: the Dissolution of the Monasteries by Henry VIII

- 1767: William Aislabie unites the Foutains and Studley estates

- 1983: the National trust buys the estate

- 1986: Studley Royal with Fountains Abbey becomes a World Heritage site

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29

What is the significance of Huby's Tower?

- Unique to Fountains Abbey

-50 m tall

- Built at height of wealth when FA was the richest in England

- Shows off wealth

-Used to call everyone into the abbey as it had a bell in it- shows monks moving away from Cistercian values as they were all about silence

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30

What is the significance of the Abbey Church?

- Largest part of the abbey

- Stood at the heart of Cistercian life

- Brought together communal worship, private prayer, ceremony and ritual

-South and north transepts jutted out creating a cross shape- shows dedication to God

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31

What is the significance of the muniments room?

- Floor tiles indicate it is an important room

- Large amount of documents indicates the large amount of business transactions carried out

-Built above warming room to have the ink dry on the documents quicker

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32

What is the significance of the wool house?

- Shows the importance of the wool trade to the abbey

- Abbey made most of its wealth from the wool trade and became the richest in Europe

-The Abbey made an excess of £1115 annually- millionaires in today’s money

-1200 Abbey sheep flocks grow to 15000

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33

What is the significance of the guest houses?

- Two separate houses for the richer and poorer guests/travellers shows they can accommodate rich and poor visitors

- Women not allowed

- Shows hospitality was important

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34

What do Fountains Abbey and Studley Royal have in common?

They are both a UNESCO World Heritage site

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35

What was the importance of Fountains Abbey locally during the monastic period?

- Centre of religion

- Trade with locals (e.g. wool and grain)

- Local visitors and patrons; guest houses accommodated them

- Patrons gave donations that enabled building programmes

- Provided care during the Black Death

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36

What was the importance of Fountains Abbey nationally during the monastic period?

- Largest Cistercian monastery in UK

- Mother Abbey of Cistercian network of Abbeys (7)

- Richest in England at certain times

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37

What was the importance of Fountains Abbey internationally during the monastic period?

- Trade: wool went as far as Tuscany, Italy

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38

What was the importance of Fountains Abbey locally during the National Trust period?

- Permanent jobs e.g. gardeners, landscapers, cafe and tour guides

- Tourism inside site and around - day trips, weddings, local pubs, restaurants, hotels, etc

- School groups/education

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39

What was the importance of Fountains Abbey nationally during the National Trust period?

- Part of National Trust community

- Promoted in guidebooks

- Bus tours/tourists arriving from across the UK

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40

What was the importance of Fountains Abbey internationally during the National Trust period?

- 1986: UNESCO site (1 of only 33 currently in the UK)

- International tourism

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41

How is Rievaulx Abbey similar to Fountains Abbey?

- Has a huge cloister and a church facing east

- Arched windows

- Tall and thin building

- Founded in 1132

-Experienced dissolution which left it in ruins

-Stone- sandstone and limestone

-Had an infirmary and warming room

-Church layout is similar

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42

How is Rievaulx Abbey different to Fountains Abbey?

- Doesn't have a building similar to Huby's Tower

- Ironsmiths - nails, tools, cutlery

- Swinehouse (pigs)

- English Heritage own the site

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43

How is Jervaulx Abbey similar to Fountains Abbey?

- Abbey experienced dissolution

- Huge cloister and monastery that extends

- Windows that arch and get smaller as you go up

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44

How is Jervaulx Abbey different to Fountains Abbey?

- Least well-preserved

- Doesn't have a 50m bell tower (Huby's Tower)

- Bread houses which gave it wealth

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45

How is Kirkstall Abbey similar to Fountains Abbey?

- Similar floor plan

- More preserved than Rievaulx and Jervaulx

- Now a tourist attraction

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46

How is Kirkstall Abbey different to Fountains Abbey?

- Much smaller abbey

- Doesn't have a 50m bell tower

- Windows are much more oval

- Founded in 1152

- Owned by Leeds City Council

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47

What does Fountains Abbey reveal about everyday life during the monastic period?

Prayer and work

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48

What does Fountains Abbey reveal about the attitudes during the monastic period?

Caring, devoted, humble, practical and resilient

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49

What does Fountains Abbey reveal about the values during the monastic period?

Spirituality, compassion, toughness and self reliance

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50

What are the evidences for what Fountains Abbey reveals about everyday life, attitudes and values during the monastic period?

- Main church

- Additional building over time to expand the Church (e.g. Huby's Tower, Chapel of the Nine Altars)

- Night stairs

- Infirmary

- Guest houses

-The warming house-only had a fire from Nov 1 to Easter, Cistercian monks believed suffering was a way of getting closer to God

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51

What does Fountains Abbey reveal about the everyday life during the National Trust period?

Daily visitors, National Trust workers, volunteers, educational visits and special events

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52

What does Fountains Abbey reveal about the attitudes during the National Trust period?

Welcoming and supportive

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53

What does Fountains Abbey reveal about the values during the National Trust period?

Appreciation, empathy, conservation, preservation, and education

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54

What are the evidences for what Fountains Abbey reveals about everyday life, attitudes and values during the National Trust period?

- Entrance and visitor centre

- Car/coach parking

- Preservation of ruins to avoid further damage

- Maintenance of gardens against floods, etc

-Maintaining the woodland- can link to surprise view

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55

What are some of the problems with the south transept?

- Unsure of how and when the remains of the roofline of the monks' dormitory was changed

- Holy Trinity window replaced with a new design

- Monk night stairs are no longer there

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56

What are some of the problems with the High Altar?

- Tiles of the High Altar have been relocated from other areas of the Abbey

- Unsure whether they are the original tiles and who moved them

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57

What are some of the problems with the Georgian Viewing Platform?

- Doesn't exist anymore; unsure where it would've been built

- Evidence it was there through pictures

- Built later on and then demolished?

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58

What are some of the problems with the Cloister Arcading?

- Destroyed in the dissolution

- All the remaining rubble was cleared or buried by the Aislabie's workmen

- Post-holes that held the roof support can still be seen in the sides

- Rievaulx gives us an insight as to what it would have looked like

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59

What are some of the problems with the "apple or cider press" ?

- Don't know for sure it was a cider press

- Certainly wouldn't have been used by the laybrothers

- Moved here from the cellarium by the Aislabie's

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60

What are some of the problems with the cellarium?

- Engraving shows a collapsed section of the cellarium

- Divisions of the cellarium were removed by the Aislabie's

- Wouldn't have been one big room

- Repaired as there was a roof collapse

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61

In 1132, what were the temporary buildings made of?

Wood

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62

When was the first stone church built and what was it built of?

  • 1136

  • The stone from the limestone cliffs

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63

Why was the abbey built in the Skell valley?

  • It provided the peace and quite the monks believed they needed to fully focus on God and live spiritually

  • The town of Ripon was not too far meaning that there was opportunities for trade with them

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64

What did the monks trade the most with Ripon?

Wool

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65

Why did the Abbey become so rich?

Because the wool industry was the biggest at that time and the monks capitalised on this

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66

What did the monks use the water from the River Skell for?

  • Washing such as washing the chalices they used in services

  • Blessing it and making it into Holy water

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67

Why was the agricultural land (Swanley Grange) near fountains abbey important?

  • It allowed them make their own food, feed their farm animals as well as themselves

  • Being self-sufficient and hard working would be a favourable quality for a monk

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