Biology Midterm Prep

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The study guide for 9th grade bio. (Mrs. Z's class)

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79 Terms
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hypothesis

An educated guess made before research is done

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theory

A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data. An educated guess backed up by data.

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Linnaeus

father of taxonomy and binomial nomenclature

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binomial nomenclature

Classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name: Genus species

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Correctly list the levels of biological organization.

Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

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covalent bond

A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule

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non polar covalent bond

equal sharing of electrons

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polar covalent bond

unequal sharing of electrons (ex. water)

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How do water molecules bond?

hydrogen bond: slightly negative oxygen bond to slightly positive hydrogen.

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Cohesion

water molecules sticking to each other

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Adhesion

water molecules sticking to other surfaces

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surface tension

because of cohesive nature (due to hydrogen bonding) of its molecules water molecules resist external forces: the property that allows certain bugs to walk on water

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capillary action

tendency of water to rise or get pulled up due to cohesion/adhesion: water moving up a plant stem

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solute

the substance that is dissolved

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solvent

the substance in which the solute dissolves

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solution

a mixture that forms when one substance dissolves another

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organic compounds

compounds that contain carbon

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What's is the significance of carbon?

It's found in all living things and essential to life on earth.

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CHONPS

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur

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glycogen

storage form of glucose in animals

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starch

storage form of glucose in plants

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Cellulose

storage form of glucose in cell walls

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saturated fatty acid

a fatty acid chain with single hydrogen bonds: solid at room temp

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unsaturated fatty acid

a fatty acid chain with double hydrogen bonds: liquid at room temp.

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phospholipids

a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule: polar head and nonpolar tail

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carb monomer

monosaccharide

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carb polymer

polysaccharide

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carb function

short term energy storage and structure

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protein monomer

amino acids

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protein polymer

polypeptide

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protein function

structure, communication, membrane transport, catalysis, recognition and protection, movement, cell adhesion

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lipid monomer

fatty acid

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lipid function

long term energy storage and insulation

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nucleic acid monomer

nucleotide

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nucleic acid polymer

DNA and RNA

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nucleic acid function

store and transmit genetic info

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Why are cells so small?

smaller cells have more surface area making it easier to pass oxygen, nutrients and waste materials

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cell theory

idea that;

  1. all living things are composed of cells

  2. cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things

  3. new cells are produced from existing cells

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nucleus

control center of the cell

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cell wall

strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane in plant cells

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golgi body

structure in a cell that receives proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, packages them, and distributes them to other parts of the cell: UPS of the cell

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ribosomes

makes proteins

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endoplasmic reticulum

a cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another (highway system of the cell)

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mitochondria

powerhouse of the cell

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chloroplast

site of photosynthesis

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cytoskeleton

strength and support, movement of cellular structures and materials

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vesicles

small membrane sacs that specialize in moving products into, out of, and within a cell

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plasma membrane

selectively-permeable phospholipid bilayer forming the boundary of the cells

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fluid mosaic model

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properties of phospholipid bilayer

  1. determines passive permeability of membranes (diffusion)

  2. lipid soluble molecules permeate or diffuse through phospholipid bilayer easily

  3. water soluble (hydrophilic) molecules do not

  4. allows small polar molecules in

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diffusion

the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

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facillitated diffusion

process that moves materials from high to low concentration with the help of protein channels; does not require energy

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osmosis

diffusion of water

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active transport

the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy

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selectively permeable membrane

membrane that allows some substances to pass more easily than others and blocks the passage of some substances altogether

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hypotonic solution

a solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution (more water)

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hypertonic solution

a solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution (less water)

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isotonic solution

a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell

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What organic molecules are enzymes made of?

proteins

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What do enzymes do?

speed up chemical reactions and lower activation energy: they catalyze reactions, not start them

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ATP

adenosine triphosphate, energy used in cell

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ATP vs ADP

ATP has 3 phosphate groups (more energy) and ADP has two phosphate groups.

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Leaf Layer Diagram

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Chloroplast Diagram

also includes strands of DNA and ribosomes: proof of endosymbiotic theory

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What is the relationship between location of chloroplasts in the leaf and photosynthesis?

The mesophyll palisade has more chloroplasts allowing for more photosynthesis. This layer is closer to the top of the cell.

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Cuticle

the waxy, waterproof layer that covers the leaves and stems of most plants.

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mesophyll

the tissue in the interior of the leaf

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spongy mesophyll

  • layer of loose tissue found beneath the palisade mesophyll in a leaf

  • less photosynthesis is done here (less chloroplasts)

  • air pockets allow for respiration

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palisade mesophyll

  • layer of tightly packed cells under the upper epidermis of a leaf

  • more photosynthesis is done here (morechloroplasts)

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gaurd cells and stomata

pairs of cells that surround stomata and control oppening and closing

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epidermis

a tissue made up of a single layer of cells which covers the top and bottom of a leaf

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thylakoid

a flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy: light dependent reaction done here

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granum

stack of thylakoids

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What colors are

  • chlorophyll a

  • chlorophyll b

  • xanthophyll

  • carotene

  • anthocyanin

  • chlorophyll a: blue-green

  • chlorophyll b: yellow-green

  • xanthophyll: yellow

  • carotene: yellow to orange

  • anthocyanin: blue, red, purple

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Why do leaves change color in the fall?

The chlorophyll breaks down, the green color disappears, and the yellow to orange colors become visible.

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equation for photosynthesis

6CO2 (carbon dioxide)+ 6H2O (water) + energy = C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2 (oxygen)

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What factors affect photosynthesis?

  1. temperature

  2. light intensity

  3. the availability of water.

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Calvin Cycle

reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars

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Light Dependent Reaction

reactions of photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH

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