bio ch 54

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flows cycle

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66 Terms

1

flows cycle

energy _______ and nutrients _______

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2

heat

reason why energy conversions are not completely efficient: energy 'lost' as h______

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3

cellular respiration

reason why energy conversions are not completely efficient: energy 'lost' due to c________ __________

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4

sugars ATP

goal of cellular respiration? break down ______ to make ______

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5

yes

do detritivores have mouths?

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6

no

do saprotrophs have mouths?

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7

saprotrophs

what type of organisms secrete enzymes to to break down dead organisms?

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8

decomposers

what connects all trophic levels?

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9

primary production

what is the amount of light energy converted to chemical energy by autotrophs during a given time period?

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10

photosynthetic

the extent of __________ production sets the spending limit for the energy budget of the entire ecosystem

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11

global energy budget

amount of solar radiation reaching the surface of the earth - limits photosynthetic output of ecosystems

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12

gross primary production

amount of light converted to chemical energy before photosynthesis... like income before taxes

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13

net primary production

GPP (gross primary production - everything) not including the energy used by primary producers for cellular respiration

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14

GPP

NPP + R = ___

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15

NPP

GPP - R = ___

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16

respiration

what is R in the equations GPP - R = NPP and NPP = GPP + R

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17

terrestrial

what type of ecosystem is 2/3 of of the global NPP?

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18

oceanic

what type of ecosystem is 1/3 of of the global NPP?

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19

amino acids nucleic acids

why is nitrogen a nutrient that limits marine production? because it is necessary to make a______ a_______ and n_____ a_____

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20

metabolic

why is nitrogen a nutrient that limits marine production? it is necessary for many ________ processes

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21

phospholipid bilayer/plasma membrane

phosphorus makes up the....

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22

oligotrophic

what type of lake... lots of oxygen, not many nutrients

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23

eutrophic

what type of lake... little oxygen but lots of nutrients

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24

evapotranspiration

the amount of water annually transpired by plants and evaporated from a landscape

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25

production efficiency

___________ ___________ of an organisms is the fraction of energy stored in food that is NOT used for respiration

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26

trophic efficiency

the percent of production transferred from one trophic level to the next

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27

10%

trophic efficiency we will always use in this class

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28

efficient

why is being vegetarian good? it's more e_______

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29

carbon footprint

why is being vegetarian good? less of a c_____ f_________

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30

defenses

factor to keep herbivores in check: plants have natural ________

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31

nutrients

factor to keep herbivores in check: n_______ limit herbivores

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32

abiotic

factor to keep herbivores in check: a________ factors

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33

predation

factor to keep herbivores in check: p_________

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34

competition

factor to keep herbivores in check: intraspecific ___________

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35

interactions

factor to keep herbivores in check: interspecific ___________

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36

globally

nitrogen, carbon, and water cycle all cycle...

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37

phosphorus

which cycle does not cycle globally?

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38

nitrogen fixation

nitrogen cycle: Conversion of nitrogen gas (N2) into nitrate (N03-) (bacteria responsible for this)

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39

Ammonification

nitrogen cycle: When plants and animals excrete waste or die, bacteria convert nitrogen into ammonia

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40

Nitrification

nitrogen cycle: conversion of ammonia to nitrate

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41

Denitrification

nitrogen cycle: bacteria convert ammonia, nitrite and nitrates back into nitrogen gas, nitrogen gas back to atmosphere

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42

seasons

why the up and down of CO2 in the graph that fargo showed us in class? (winter at the top, summer at the bottom) (this is because plants are not doing as much photosynthesis in the winter)

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43

solar energy

what is the water cycle driven by?

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44

okay

practice drawing the water cycle

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45

okay

practice drawing the carbon cycle

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46

lightning

what is also kind of involved in the nitrogen cycle? (idrk how but fargo always talks about it)

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47

atmosphere

phosphorus is not a global cycle because there is no phosphorus in the a__________

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48

weather soil

phosphorus could be a long term cycle because rocks w_________ which slowly adds phosphorus to the s____

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49

vegetation

nutrient cycling is strongly regulated by ___________

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50

westerlies

what type of wind controls where the most acid rain is?

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51

the northeast

What part of the US is most affected by acid precipitation?

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52

biological magnification

what is it called when toxins concentrate at higher trophic levels because at these levels biomass tends to be lower

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53

broken down

toxins are not fat soluble, which means they can't be b_______ d______ in an organism

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54

global warming

The warming of planet Earth due to the atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide, which absorbs infrared radiation and slows its escape from the irradiated Earth.

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55

no

is the greenhouse effect bad?

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56

yes

is global warming bad?

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57

thinning

the ozone layer is t________

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58

DNA and RNA

what do nucleic acids make up?

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59

proteins

what do amino acids make up?

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60

cellular respiration

6O2 and C6H12O6 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

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61

photosynthesis

6CO2 + 6H2O→ 6O2 and C6H12O6

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62

egestion

The act of discharging undigested or waste material from a cell or organism

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63

Cultural eutrophication

Eutrophication caused by humans (sewage) or addition of fertilizer

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64

Eutrophication

A process by which nutrients particularly phosphorus and nitrogen become highly concentrated in a body of water leading increased growth of organisms such as algae

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65

combustion fossil fuels

main cause of acid rain: c_________ of ________ _________

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66

acidic

H2CO3 makes oceans more _________

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