biochem nucleic acids

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Deoxyribonucleic acid

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Deoxyribonucleic acid

what does DNA stand for?

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stable, genetic, replication

DNA:

A ____ molecule that must maintain a precise chemical structure

Codes for ____ information

Capable of ______ (producing exact copy of itself)

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Ribonucleic acid

what does RNA stand for?

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genetic, DNA

RNA: facilitates expression of ______ information found in ______

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polymers, nucleotide, pentose, phosphate, nitrogenous

Nucleic acid structure:

  1. They are ____ of the ______ monomer

  2. Composed of 3 components:

    1. A _____ sugar

    2. _________ group. Abbreviated with (P)

    3. One of 2 types of organic __________ bases

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deoxyribose, ribose, 2

Phosphate group:

  1. In DNA - ______

  2. In RNA - ______

    1. Difference found at Carbon #__

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purines

_____: consists of 2 fused rings

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Adenine and Guanine

Name of Purines

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pyrimidines

_____: Consist of 1 ring

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Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil

Name of pyrimidines

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A,G,C,T

what nitrogenous bases are found in DNA

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A,G,C,U

what nitrogenous bases are found in RNA

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condensation, H2O

3 components of nucleic acid are joined by _______ reactions where ____ is released

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sugar, 5, 5’, 1

Nucleic acid:

The _____ is in the middle with the phosphate group attached on the ____ carbon (known as _____ or five prime) and the nitrogenous base attached at the carbon #__

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polynucleotide, condensation, phosphate, 3, 3’, sugars, phosphates, nitrogenous base

Each 3 component nucleotide may combine with other 3 component nucleotides to form a _______ in a _______ reaction. The _____ in one nucleotide attaches to the ____ carbon (known as the _____ or three prime).

Result is alternating ____ and _____ to make a chain. The ____ _____ is not involved in the polymerization

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2, double helix, 2, antiparallel, hydrogen

In DNA, ____ polynucleotide chains are coiled around the same axis making a ___________. The ____ strands go in opposite directions (________) and are held together by ______ bonding.

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A and T

Which pair is paired with 2 hydrogen bonds?

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C and G

Which pair is paired with 3 hydrogen bonds?

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twisted ladder, backbone, rungs

another name for DNA structure? _____

Sugar phosphate is the _______ and the base pairs as ____ in the ladder

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fragments, positive, negative, positively, basic, histones

______ of DNA migrate towards ____ electrode in electrophoresis. Therefore, they carry _____ charge. As a result, DNA is found complexed with _____ (containing many _____ groups) charged proteins called _____

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ribose, deoxyribose, uracil, thymine, single, nuclear, short

RNA:

  1. contains ____ instead of _______

  2. contains ____ as nitrogenous base instead of _______

  3. ______-stranded

  4. Able to cross ___ membrane

  5. _____-lived

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protein synthesis, 4, 20

How is the genetic information encoded in DNA expressed in? ________

  1. Sequence of ____ nitrogenous bases in DNA dictates the sequence and type of the ____ different amino acids found in protein.

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transcription

Name of the first step of creating a protein

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hydrogen, unzipping

Transcription:

The two antiparallel strands of DNA separate by the breaking of the ________ bonds between them in a process known as ________

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template, single, detaches, double helix

Transcription:

Each unzipped strand may serve as a ____ for the formation of a ____ strand of RNA. RNA _____ from DNA and leaves nucleus. The DNA reforms original ___________

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ribosome, translation

RNA migrates to the _________ where the sequence of bases in the RNA determines the amino acid sequence in a protein. Known as _________

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Codon

Name of the sequence of 3 bases on the RNA that code for a different amino acid?

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DNA, RNA, protein

Central Dogma: Genetic information flows in one direction from ___ to _____ to _______

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replication, semiconservative

_____: process where DNA makes an exact copy of itself during cell division so each cell ends up with identical set of DNA. This process is also _______

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genetic engineering, genetically modified organism

process when DNA from one species is transferred to another species? _____ . Result is ___________ (GMO)

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add beneficial gene, inactive troublesome gene, modify existing gene

3 ways genetic engineering can be done:

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greater, better, disease, greater, growing

Pros with GMO foods

  1. ____ shelf life

  2. _____ product (flavor, appearance or nutrition)

  3. Increase _____ resistance

  4. ______ crop yields

  5. More tolerant of tougher ____ conditions

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long, ecosystems, composition, super, labelling

Issues with GMO foods

  1. What are ______ term effects?

  2. Changes in _______

  3. Any risk in altering original _____ in food?

  4. Creation of ____ species that can’t be controlled

  5. Food _______

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