Effects of the Crimean War

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Overview of Crimean war: Who was it against? How did it end? What was the peace treaty?

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Includes background on war but don't need to memorise this - only memorise effects

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1

Overview of Crimean war: Who was it against? How did it end? What was the peace treaty?

  • Russia vs Ottoman Turks (supported by Britain + France)

  • Siege of Sevastopol - Russian troops surrendered

  • Treaty of Paris (1856) - Russia conceded territory in Bessarabia

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2

When was the Treaty of Paris signed by Russia, Britain, France and the Ottoman Empire?

March 1856

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3

How was the army organised in the Crimean war?

  • officers taken from nobility

  • forced conscription of tax paying serfs, 25 year term of service

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4

How many people were in the Russian army in 1853?

1,400,000

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5

How serious was the defeat in the Crimean war to Russia?

very serious + humiliating

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6

What did Alex II's ministers agreed on after the Crimean War?

The need to build railways and to get money to do that

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7

What were the army reforms in 1856?

  • no recruitment or military colonies

  • conscription for all men over 20 but for less time

  • more humane and efficient training

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8

What did the Crimean war highlight for the army?

the need for reforms

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9

Why did the Crimean war help lead to the 1863 Polish uprising? NOT NEEDED FRO MOCK

  • led to a series of protests and riots against Russian rule in Poland and Lithuania

  • Many believed that the Russian Empire had been seriously weakened and that a national uprising against it could now be a success

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10

What observations is the causal link between Alex II's reforms and the Crimean war based on?

  • revealed weaknesses in the way Nicholas I had ruled

  • The army was recruited from serfs

  • Soldiers had been poorly supplied; the production of armaments and uniforms was inadequate

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11

What were the weaknesses of NI’s rule revealed in the Crimean war?

the maintenance of serfdom under strict autocratic rule didn’t fit with staging modern warfare

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12

Why was having serfs making up most of the army a draw back?

  • they weren’t trained to the same standard as the professional armies of Britain and France

  • were inclined towards revolt, and given their other responsibilities, were probably not as committed

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13

What was the soldiers being poorly supplied a reflection on?

the way the economy was organised and how Russia had been slow to industrialise

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14

What were the reasons for Alex II's reforms apart from the Crimean war?

  • pressure to abolish serfdom, as it was seen as a form of slavery

  • growing peasant unrest that could be traced back to the 1770s

  • demands from some politicians and entrepreneurs for more labour to work on projects and railway routes

  • population growth, which put pressure on a farming system that was geared up to provide subsistence, not surplus

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15

Who was the Crimean war between?

Russia vs Ottoman empire (later supported by Fr + GB)

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16

What did people (especially Slavophiles) think after the Crimean war?

  • Were upset with humiliating defeat + questioned how great Russia was

  • thought Russia’s status as a great world power was severely damaged

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17

What led to public discussions about the future of the Russian empire?

  • The poor showing of the Russian military

  • the stipulations of the treaty of Paris

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18

How many casualties

  • 650,000 - 750,000

  • far heavier casualties than any other EU war fought b/w 1814-1914

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19

Break down of losses for each country:

  • Britain - 22,000

  • France - 90,000

  • Russia - 450,000

  • Turkey - 150,000

  • 1 in 5 lost their lives in battle, most died of disease

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20

What did the treaty of Paris highlight?

the weak position Russia found itself in

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21

What did the Crimean war indirectly act as a catalyst for?

a number of significant economic, social, and political reforms

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22

How did the Crimean war influence emancipation of serfs?

  • revealed Russia, in comparison to the other powers, to be backward and underdeveloped

  • This was especially true when it came to transport, communications and the use of technology in general

  • industrialisation was way behind GB + Fr, many believed this is bcs of serfdom (no work force bcs they are farming/in the army for 25 years)

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23

How likely is it that the Crimean war was the reason for the EE?

  • not likely to be sole reason - EE was in 1861 (several years later), however probs a large contributing factor

  • reason for time b/w end of war + edict could be bcs Russian society was structured on top of serfdom

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24

What proportion of the casualties did Russia make up?

over half

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25

Reasons for Russia’s failure

  • Outdated technology eg: inferior muskets (1 per 2 soldiers), still used sails + wooden bottom ships (vs metal bottomed/steam powered)

  • poor transport - took longer to equip front line

  • inadequate leadership (bcs given jobs due to status not ability)

  • Serfs - lacked training/skill

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26

What happened to peasant uprising due to the Crimean war?

  • increased

  • 1840-44 = 30 uprisings per year

  • 1845-60 = 60 uprisings per year

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27

What did Russia need to do in order to keep their status, highlighted by Crimean war?

modernise

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28

Who made up the most of the Russian army

serfs

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29

What was the effect of poor accommodation?

disease spread (killed more people than battle)

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30

What did poor accommodation coupled with lack of decent clothing/equiptment mean?

low moral in troops

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31

What was the time frame of the military reforms?

1862-1874

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32

Outline some of the military reforms + the effect

  • reduced service in the army to fifteen years

  • modernised training and provided rigorous instruction for officers

  • The result was a far more professional army and one that was more in line with that of Western rivals

  • the army, in theory, could be relied on to help maintain civil order at home as well as fight wars overseas now

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33

What was the model of the military reforms?

The Prussian military system

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34

What reforms cannot be linked to the Crimean war?

  • Church reforms

  • education reforms

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35

How much money was spent on the railway construction? how long was the track? When was it built?

Using foreign loans, nearly 2 billion roubles

20,000 km of track

from 1861 to 1878

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36

What were the effects of the Crimean war?

  • Realisation that Russia’s economic and social infrastructure was outdated - esp. serfdom

  • EMANCIPATION OF THE SERFS (1861)

  • Modernisation of the military

  • MOST IMPORTANT - forced changes in local government!

  • AII bridged the gap between the isolated newly-emancipated peasants and the rest of society with the zemstva

  • Appeared to introduce some democracy to Russian government

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