Economic Plants Final Exam practice

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What vegetables are bulbs?

A) ginger, licorice

B) onion, garlic, leek

C) Potato, yam, turnips

D) Carrots, parsnips

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Practice questions for the Economic plants final exam!

136 Terms

1

What vegetables are bulbs?

A) ginger, licorice

B) onion, garlic, leek

C) Potato, yam, turnips

D) Carrots, parsnips

B) onion, garlic, leek

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2

What are the two broad categories of vegetables?

“root” below-ground crops

“Green” above-ground crops

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3

What are some examples of green, above-ground vegetables?

A) Potatoes, yams, sweet potatoes

B) Water chestnut, taro

C) Cabbage, celery, malt barley

D) Turmeric, celery, carrot

C) Cabbage, celery, malt barley

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4

What is the most important food tuber and why?

The potato because it thrived in the cool summer climate of eastern and northern Europe

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5

What caused the Irish Potato Blight?

Th Irish potato variety was derived from a single cultivar, so it had little genetic variation leaving it susceptible to pests.

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6

Are sweet potatoes yams?

NO

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7

What are the different yams and where are they native to?

  • Yellow and white yams, West Africa

  • Water yam, Asia

  • cush-cush yam, Central America

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8

What is the most commercially important corm?

Taro, grown best in tropical climates

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9

What are the two tropical true roots?

Cassava (tapioca) and Sweet potato

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10

What are the most economically important true roots?

Taproots; large, swollen true roots that are specialized for storing carbohydrates

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11

Examples of taproots?

biennial species like Carrot, parsnip, beets, sugar beets, turnip, rutabaga, radish, daikon

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12

Green vegetables in the Mustard (Brassicaceae) family

The Brassica oleracea species

  • Cabbage, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, kohlrabi, kale

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13

Green vegetables in the Mustard (Brassicaceae) family

The Brassica rapa species

  • Bok choi, Chinese flowering cabbage, celery cabbage

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14

What is the most important crop in the Sunflower (Asteraceae) family?

Lettuce

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15

What plant family is the artichoke in?

the Sunflower (Asteraceae) family

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16

What did King Louis XIV of France develop a liking for?

A) Pickles

B) Pickled olives

C) Pickled peppers

D) Pickled asparagus

D) Pickled asparagus

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17

What is the most important substance in spices?

“essential” volatile oils

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18

What was the original purpose of spices?

  • preservative and medicinal benefits

  • to hide the smell and/or taste of spoiling food

  • improve to palpability of bland dishes

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19

What was the Spice Trade?

importing spices and other products from India, China, and Arabian peninsula

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20

What was the most important spice during the Spice Trade?

Black pepper

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21

What is the mint family called?

Lamiaceae

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22

What spices are in the Mint family?

  • Rosemary, woody shrub

  • Thyme, low shrub

  • Oregano, perennial herb

  • Sage, herbaceous perennial

  • Basil, annual herb

  • Spearmint, herbaceous

  • Peppermint, European cultigen

  • Summer savory

  • Winter savory

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23

What is the binomial name for Cloves?

A) Syzygium aromaticum

B) Carum carvi

C) Cinnamomum verum

D) Petroselinium crispum

A) Syzygium aromaticum

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24

What spices in the carrot (Apiaceae) family are obtained from the leaves?

  • Parsley, biennial herb

  • Dill, annual plant

  • Cilantro, annual species

  • Angelica, biennial herb

  • Chervil

  • Lovage

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25

Cilantro and Coriander come from the same plant, which parts are they sourced from?

  • Cilantro: the leaves of the plant

  • Coriander: the fruit of the plant

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26

What is the fruit of the carrot family called?

Schizocarp

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27

What spices in the carrot (Apiaceae) family are obtained from the fruit?

  • Coriander, Annual species

  • Fennel, perennial herb

  • Cumin, annual herb

  • Anise, annual herb

  • Caraway, biennial herb

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28

What spice is closely related to Caraway, has a similar flavor and method of use?

Indian native Ajwain

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29

What are the 3 mustard species?

  • Black (brassica nigra) spicy

  • Brown (B. juncea) spicy

  • White (Sinapsis alba) bitter

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30

What family does the spice Tarragon belong to?

The Sunflower (Asteraceae) family

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31

What is the most expensive spice and why?

Saffron, it takes about 150 flowers to obtain 1 gram of saffron

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32

What are the temperate spices?

  • Mustards

  • tarragon

  • Bay leaf

  • Saffron

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33

What are the tropical spices?

  • Cinnamon

  • Cloves

  • Nutmeg and mace

  • Black pepper

  • Ginger

  • Allspice

  • Chili or Cayenne peppers

  • Vanilla

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34

What makes Allspice unique?

It is one of the few commercially important spices native to the Americas

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35

What are examples of monosaccharides?

Glucose and fructose

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36

What are examples of disaccharides?

Sucrose and maltose

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37

What is table sugar composed of?

Sucrose (glucose + fructose)

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38

What bonds link together to make Starch?

alpha -4 glycosidic bonds

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39

What enzyme breaks down alpha-bonds?

A) Lactase

B) Amylase

C) Sucrase

D) Cellulose

B) Amylase

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40

What bonds link together to make Cellulose?

beta 1-4 glycoside bonds

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41

What is cellulose often referred to as and why?

“Dietary fiber” because beta bonds are much harder for organisms to break down

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42

What range of carbon atoms does Gasoline have?

5-12 carbon atoms

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43

What process can make the breakdown of sugars to obtain Ethanol easier?

anaerobic fermentation by yeasts or other organisms

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44

What measures the efficiency of bioethanol production?

energy balance

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45

What is energy balance?

The ratio of the amount of bioethanol energy produced to the amount of energy required for it’s manufacture

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46

How many carbon atoms does bioethanol have?

A) 5

B) 8

C)12

D) 2

D) 2

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47

What is utilized in United States and Brazil bioethanol factories?

US- Corn starch from corn kernels

Brazil- Sugar Cane

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48

What are the plant sugar sources?

  • Sugar Cane, perennial grass

  • Sugar Beet

  • Corn Syrup

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49

What is the largest source of commercial sugar?

Sugar cane

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50

What tropical palms are sourced for sugar?

  • Sugar palm

  • Palmyra palm

  • Fishtail palm

  • Mokola palm

  • Sugar maple

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51

Are sweeteners natural or artificial?

Artificial

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52

What sweeteners are in the leaves of Stevia?

stevioside and rebaudioside (20%)

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53

What is the miracle berry known for and where is it native to?

Affecting the tastebuds of food eaten afterwards, Tropical West Africa

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54

Why is stevia non-caloric?

Because it is not absorbed by the gut.

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55

What is biodiesel consisted of?

Methyl esters derived from plant oils

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56

What plant oils are from cool temperate climates?

  • Canola

  • Sunflower

  • Linseed or flax

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57

What plant oils are from warm temperate climates?

  • Olive

  • Sesame

  • Peanut

  • Cottonseed

  • Corn

  • Soybean

  • Safflower

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58

Plant oils from tropical climates

  • oil palm

  • coconut

  • Tung

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59

What is Tung oil mostly used for?

As a high-quality drying oil

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60

What is modern wax produced from?

petroleum-based synthetics

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61

Plant waxes

  • Carnauba

  • Jojoba

  • Candelilla

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62

True or false: all the plant waxes are native to Mexico

False, Carnauba is native to Brazil, while Jojoba and Candelilla are native to Mexico

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63

What specialized cells or vessels produces latex in plants?

lactifers

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64

How does latex benefit plants?

Latex protects plants from injury, help deter herbivores, pest, and pathogens.

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65

Plants that produce latex?

  • Para (common rubber)

  • Guayule

  • Gutta-Percha

  • Chicle

  • Balata

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66

What is the most important latex-producing species?

Para (Common rubber)

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67

What is the Para rubber tree most susceptible to?

fungal leaf blight

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68

What percentage of the 21 tons of rubber produced annually is naturally sourced?

40%

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69

What did Indigenous peoples in South America utilize latex for?

Balls for games, shoes, and clothing

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70

What was the over-exploitation of the Lagos rubber tree in Congo by Belgium called?

“slaughter-tapping”

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71

What does Gutta-percha produce and what plant produces something virtually identical?

Gutta-percha produces non-elastic latex that doesn’t turn brittle when cool, the plant Balata produces gutta-balata which is virtually identical.

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72

How did the Indigenous peoples of South America utilize Chicle latex that became popular in North America?

They used the chicle latex as a chewing gum.

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73

Plant fibres are long, thin strands of what?

A) Sucrose

B) Fructose

C) Cellulose

D) Latex

C) Cellulose

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74

What are the three major methods of fibre extraction?

  • Ginning

  • Retting

  • Decortication

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75

What are the seed fibres?

  • Cotton

  • Kapok

  • Bat or Stem

  • Flax

  • Hemp

  • Ramie

  • Kenaf

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76

What is the most important plant fibre and what are the 3 chemical processes?

Cotton

  • mercerization: stretching the yarn under pressure and emersion in cold caustic soda

  • sanforizing: using ammonia to reduce fabric shrinkage

  • permanent pressing: cross-links cotton fibres so that fabrics better retain their shape

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77

What composes the fibres from Kapok?

Cellulose and lignin

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78

What is a close relative of Manila hemp?

A) Banana

B) Lettuce

C) Apple

D) Spinach

A) banana

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79

What is cellulose fibre produced from and an example?

regenerated natural cellulose, example is bamboo fibre sourced from regenerated bamboo stalks

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80

What stimulant is in cocoa?

theobromine

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81

What are some caffeinated beverages?

  • Coffee

  • Tea

  • Cocoa

  • Cola

  • Mate

  • guarana

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82

What are the 3 most important caffeinated beverages?

Coffee, tea, cocoa

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83

What factors contribute to the flavor of coffees?

  • variety grown

  • growing conditions

  • methods of roasting and blending

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84

What coffee is mainly used to produce instant and less expensive coffees?

Robusta coffee

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85

Where was the first recorded use of coffee as a beverage?

A) South-east Asia

B) Africa

C) Arabian peninsula

D) South America

C) Arabian peninsula

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86

Where is tea native to?

Northern India and Southern China

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87

What contributes to the taste of tea?

caffeine, essential oils and various bitter tannins

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88

What is Cola native to?

A) China

B) Mexico

C) Iran

D) Africa

D) Africa

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89

What is the process of fermentation?

anaerobic respiration by fungal yeasts

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90

What grapes are used to produce white wine?

A)Red Grapes

B) White grapes

C) Purple grapes

D) Both A and B

E) Both B and C

D) Both A and B

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91

What is the French classification system of wine based on?

Location and historic reputation

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92

What are the 3 most important wine growing regions in France?

  • Bordeaux

  • Burgundy

  • Champagne

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93

What are Italy’s 3 levels of wine classification?

  • Table wine, consumed locally

  • DOC

  • DOCG

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94

What type of wine is most produced in Germany?

A) Red wine

B) Champagne

C) White wine

D) none

C) White wine

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95

Where is wine production restricted to in Germany?

The valleys of the Rhine River

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96

Wine classification in Germany is mainly based on what?

grape “quality” (sugar content) rather than vineyards location and reputation

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97

What are the 2 most famous wines produced in Spain?

  • Gran Reserva

  • Sherry

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98

What is the most famous wine produced in Portugal called?

Port

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99

What is the principal starch source of beer production in the world?

Barley malt

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100

What are the steps of the production of beer?

  • Germinate

  • mash

  • wort

  • boil the wort with hops fruit

  • fermentation

  • Filter and age the beer

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