Chapter 18 - Organisms and their Environment  

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Primary producers

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23 Terms

1

Primary producers

________ are photosynthetic organisms (autotrophs) that are able to convert light energy from the Sun to chemical energy that can be transferred from one organism to another within the ecosystem.

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2

Sludge

________ undergoes a process of bacterial digestion to reduce the amount of organic matter and the number of disease- causing microorganisms present.

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3

Green plants

________ convert atmospheric carbon dioxide into glucose during photosynthesis.

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4

Decomposers

Organisms that obtain their energy from non- living organic material such as faeces, fallen leaves and dead organisms.

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5

pollution

They are prone to overfishing and ________, which could lead to an imbalance in the ecosystem.

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6

Food chains

________ seldom have more than 5 trophic levels as less energy is available at the higher trophic levels.

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7

indiscriminate logging

The ________ without sufficient reforestation has led to many environmental and ecological problems such as: (a) The ‘ slash and burn practice used to clear forests for agriculture releases a large amount of carbon dioxide which contributes to global warming.

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8

Ecology

the study of the interactions between organisms and the interactions of these organisms with their environment.

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9

single tree

A(n) ________ can support a large population of aphids.

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10

Inorganic substances

________ from industrial waste include: leached nutrients and fertilisers (nitrates and phosphates) from farmland, ammonia, sulfur dioxide from power plants, and heavy metals.

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11

Carbon dioxide

The gas returned to the atmosphere when cellular respiration takes place in living organisms.

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12

solid matter

The ________ left behind from the sewage treatment process is known as sludge.

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13

Organisms

________ at each trophic level pass on much less energy to the next trophic level than they receive.

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14

Pyramid of biomass

A pyramid that shows the dry mass of organisms at each trophic level in a food chain.

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15

inorganic nutrients

They can also convert ________ in the soil to organic nutrients that can be transferred up the food chain.

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16

Water pollution

occurs when pollutants are discharged directly into water without undergoing treatment.

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17

Food webs

interconnected food chains

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18

Energy

________ enters the ecosystem from the outside.

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19

green plants

When the ________ and animals die, decomposers break their organic matter down into carbon dioxide and other simple substances.

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20

Habitat

The place where an organism lives

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21

Population

A group of individuals of one species that live in a particular habitat

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22

Community

All the organisms that live in a particular habitat. It consists of populations of organisms that live close enough to interact with one another.

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23

Pyramid of numbers

The pyramid which shows the population of each trophic level in a food chain.

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