Genetics 210 (Exam 2)

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Lethal alleles

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57 Terms

1

Lethal alleles

Alleles that cause an organism to die when present in homozygous condition.

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2

Sex-influenced inheritance

the sex influences the expression of a phenotype that is not limited to one sex or the other

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3

Sex-limited inheritance

Expression of specific phenotype is absolutely limited to one sex

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4

Sexual dimorphism

Differences between the sexes in secondary sexual characteristics.

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5

Epistasis

A gene at one locus alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at a second locus

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6

Pleiotropy

A single gene having multiple effects on an individuals phenotype

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7

Cytoplasmic inheritance

Transmission of genes that occur outside the nucleus

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8

Endosymbiosis theory

The theory that the eukaryotic cell evolved via the engulfing of one prokaryotic cell by another.

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9

Heteroplasmy

Presence of two or more distinct variants of DNA within the cytoplasm of a single cell.

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10

Maternal effect

The genotype of the mother determines the phenotype of the offspring

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11

Maternal inheritance

Genes that are inherited only from the mother (all organelles come only from the ovum).

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12

Mendelian inheritance

the basic principles of the transmission of genetic material, including the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment

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13

Paternal inheritance

A type of inheritance in which the organelles in the offspring cells derive from those in the father.

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14

Paternal leakage

paternal parents provides mitochondria through sperm

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15

DNA methylation

The addition of methyl groups to bases of DNA after DNA synthesis; may serve as a long-term control of gene expression.

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16

Epigenetic inheritance

Inheritance of traits transmitted by mechanisms not directly involving the nucleotide sequence.

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17

Genomic imprinting

Variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele is inherited from the male or female parent.

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18

Independent assortment

the random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes

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19

Nonrecombinants

An offspring whose combination of traits has not changed from the parental generation.

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20

Recombinant

An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the parents

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21

Syntenic blocks

blocks of linked loci within a genome

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22

Acrocentric

Describes a chromosome whose centromere is placed very close to one end.

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23

Deletion

A change to a chromosome in which a fragment of the chromosome is removed.

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24

Duplication

A change to a chromosome in which part of the chromosome is repeated

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25

G band

A visible band that arises when eukaryotic chromosomes at prophase or metaphase are stained with the DNA dye Giemsa

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26

Inversion

A chromosome piece reattaches to original chromosome but in reverse orientation

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27

Metacentric

Centromere in middle of chromosome

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28

Gene family

A group of genes with related functions

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29

Interstitial deletion

A chromosome breaks at two locations, the central fragment is lost, and the outer pieces rejoin

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30

Nonallelic homologous recombination

Recombination that occurs at sites within chromosomes due to the occurrence of repetitive sequences

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31

Ortholog

Homologous genes in different species

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Paralog

Genes that arise by duplication within species

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33

pseudogene

A DNA segment very similar to a real gene but which does not yield a functional product; a gene that has become inactivated in a particular species because of mutation.

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34

Repetitive sequences

Segments of DNA repeated multiple times in a genome

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35

Terminal deletion

Deletion at end of chromosome

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36

Unequal crossing-over

Misalignment of the two DNA molecules during crossing over, resulting in one DNA molecule with an insertion and the other with a deletion

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37

Inversion heterozygote

A individual that carries one normal chromosome and a homologous chromosome with an inversion

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38

Translocation

A fragment of one chromosome attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome.

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39

Allodiploid

An organism that contains one set of chromosomes from two different species

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40

Allopolyploid

A species with multiple sets of chromosomes derived from different species

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Autopolyploid

Polyploidy formed within a single species

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42

Euploid

A normal number of chromosomes

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43

Haplodiploid

When males are haploid, females are diploid

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44

Monosomic

A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has only one copy of a chromosome, instead of the normal two.

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45

Complete nondisjunction

during meiosis or mitosis, when all of the chromosomes fail to disjoin and remain in one of the two daughter cells

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46

Mosaicism

Presence of genetically distinct cell lines in the same individual

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47

Nondisjunction

Error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate.

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48

Genetic transfer

The method of increasing genetic variation in prokaryotes that involves cells "grabbing" stray pieces of DNA from their environment or exchanging DNA directly with other cells

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49

Horizontal transfer

The transfer of DNA from one cell to another by a process other than cell division, such as bacterial conjugation

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50

Conjugation

A temporary union of two organisms for the purpose of DNA transfer.

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51

Transduction

DNA is transferred from a donor cell to a recipient via a bacteriophage

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52

Transfection

Transformation of bacteria with DNA extracted from a bacterial virus

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53

Virus

A tiny, nonliving particle that invades and then reproduces inside a living cell.

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54

Lysogenic cycle

A viral reproductive cycle in which the viral DNA is added to the host cell's DNA and is copied along with the host cell's DNA

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55

Lytic cycle

A viral reproductive cycle in which copies of a virus are made within a host cell, which then bursts open, releasing new viruses

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56

Reverse transcriptase

A polymerase that catalyzes the formation of DNA using RNA as a template

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57

Chargaff's rule

A=T and C=G

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