AP Psychology: Chapter 5 - States of Consciousness

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Activation Synthesis Theory

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32 Terms

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Activation Synthesis Theory

The theory that dreams begin with random electrical activation coming from the brain stem. Dreams, then, are the brain's attempt to make sense of - to synthesize - this random activity.

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2

Addiction

A condition in which a person continues to use a drug despite its adverse effects - often despite repeated attempts to discontinue using the drug. May be based on physical or psychological dependence.

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3

Cataplexy

Sudden loss of muscle control.

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4

Circadian Rhythms

Physiological patterns that repeat approximately every 24 hours, such as the sleep-wakefulness cycle.

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5

Cognitive Neuroscience

An interdisciplinary field involving cognitive psychology, neurology, biology, computer science, linguistics, and specialists from other fields who are interested in the connection between mental processes and the brain.

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6

Consciousness

The process by which the brain creates a model of internal and external experience.

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7

Daydreaming

A common and quite normal variation of consciousness in which attention shifts to memories, expectations, desires, or fantasies and away from the immediate situation.

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8

Depressants

Drugs that slow down mental and physical activity by inhibiting transmission of nerve impulses in the central nervous system.

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9

Hallucinogens

Drugs that alter perceptions of the external environment and inner awareness.

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10

Hypnosis

An induced state of awareness, usually characterized by heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, and highly focused attention.

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11

Insomnia

The most common of sleep disorders - involving insufficient sleep, the inability to fall asleep quickly, frequent arousals, or early awakenings.

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12

Latent Content

The symbolic meaning of objects and events in a dream. ___ ___ is usually an interpretation based on Freud's psychoanalytic theory or one of its variants.

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13

Manifest Content

The storyline of a dream, taken at face value without interpretation.

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14

Meditation

A state of consciousness often induced by focusing on a repetitive behavior, assuming certain body positions, and minimizing external stimulation. ___ may be intended to enhance self knowledge, well being, and spirituality.

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15

Narcolepsy

A disorder of REM sleep, involving sleep onset REM periods and sudden daytime REM sleep attacks usually accompanied by cataplexy.

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Night Terrors

Deep sleep episodes that seem to produce fear, although any terrifying mental experience (such as a dream) is usually forgotten upon awakening. Occur mainly in children.

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Non REM Sleep (NREM)

The recurring periods, mainly associated with the deeper stages of sleep, when a sleeper is not showing rapid eye movements.

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18

Nonconscious Processes

Any brain process that does not involve conscious processing, including both preconscious memories and unconscious memories.

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19

Opiates

Highly addictive drugs, that can produce a profound sense of well being and have strong pain relieving properties.

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20

Physical Dependence

A process by which the body adjusts to, and comes to need, a drug for its everyday functioning.

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Preconscious Memories

Information that is not currently in consciousness but can be recalled to consciousness voluntarily or after something calls attention to them.

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22

Psychoactive Drugs

Chemicals that affect mental processes and behavior by their effects on the brain.

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23

Psychological Dependence

A desire to obtain or use a drug, even though there is no physical dependence.

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REM Rebound

A condition of increased REM sleep caused by REM sleep deprivation.

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REM Sleep

A stage of sleep that occurs approximately every 90 minutes, marked by bursts of rapid eye movements occurring under closed eyelids. ___ ___ periods are associated with dreaming.

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26

Sleep Apnea

A respiratory disorder in which the person intermittently stops breathing many times while asleep.

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Sleep Debt

A sleep deficiency caused by not getting the amount of sleep that one requires for optimal functioning.

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Sleep Paralysis

A condition in which a sleeper is unable to move any of the voluntary muscles, except those controlling the eyes. Normally occurs during REM sleep.

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Stimulants

Drugs that arouse the central nervous system, speeding up mental and physical responses.

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30

Tolerance

The reduced effectiveness a drug has after repeated use.

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31

Unconscious

In classic Freudian theory, a part of the mind that houses memories, desires, and feelings that would be threatening if brought to consciousness. Many modern cognitive psychologists view the unconscious in less sinister terms, merely as a collection of mental processes that operate outside of awareness - but not typically suppressing information or working at odds with consciousness.

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Withdrawal

A pattern of uncomfortable or painful physical symptoms and cravings experienced by the user when the level of drug is decreased or the drug is eliminated.

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