Earth Systems Exam 1: Chapters 1-5

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continental drift

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52 Terms
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continental drift

the gradual movement and formation of continents: Alfred Wegener

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Convection

the vertical movement of heat or other properties by massive motion within the atmosphere

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Paleo-magnetism

When rock cools and solidifies, their magnetic alignment is frozen into place, creating permanent magnetic records.

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Wadati-Benioff zones

The creation of ocean trenches and island arcs are linked to seismic activity and tectonic plate movement.

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Outermost chemical layer of the earth:

crust

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Middle chemical layer of the crust:

mantle

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Innermost chemical layer of the crust:

core

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outermost physical layer of the crust:

Lithosphere: oceanic and continental

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second physical layer of the crust:

Athenosphere

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third physical layer of the crust:

Mesosphere: lower mantle

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4th and 5th physical layers of the crust:

Inner and Outer core: outer core is the only entirely liquid layer of the earth

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Convergent boundaries

high density plate pushed beneath a more buoyant plate: Subduction. Oceanic-Continental and Oceanic-Oceanic.

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Divergent Boundaries

Creates mid-ocean ridges and continental rift zones.

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Transform Boundaries

Mostly found around mid-ocean ridges, lithosphere boundaries slide past each other.

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The Wilson cycle

Outlines ongoing origin and breakup of super continents. 3 theories: The ridge-pull hypothesis, Slab-pull (best hypothesis today), and gravitational sliding.

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Hotspots

an area in lithospheric plates where molten magma breaks through and creates a volcanic center, islands in ocean, and mountains on land.

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Classic definition of a mineral

1: naturally occurring 2: inorganic 3: solid at room temp. 4: regular crystal structure 5: defined chemical composition

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Rock

substance that contains one or more minerals/mineraloids. 3 Types: igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic.

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Formation of minerals

  1. Precipitation directly from a water solution with a temperature change. 2. Crystallization from magma with a temperature change 3. Biological precipitation by the action of organisms.

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The Olivine Family

Silicate minerals, primary mineral in mantle rock. Solidifies into igneous rock, a mafic material.

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The Pyroxene Family

Silicate mineral: another mafic mineral, found in both igneous and metamorphic rocks.

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The Amophibole Family

Silicate mineral: found in both igneous and metamorphic rocks, have a long-bladed crystal habit.

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Sheet Silicates

Silicate mineral: micas and clays, quartz and feldspar very abundant

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Carbonates and phosphates

Non- Silicate minerals, also referred to as salts

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Minerals are ID'ed by:

luster, color, streak, hardness, crystal habit, cleavage, fracture, and special properties like effervescence.

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Igneous rocks are classified by:

Texture: coarse-grained (phaneritic), fine-grained (apantic), or mixed (porphyritic). Composition

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The different groups of igneous rock composition:

1: felsic 2: intermediate 3: mafic 4: ultramafic

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Bowen's Reaction Series

describes the temperatures at which minerals crystallize and melt. All minerals will crystallize by 700 C and melt by 1,250 C.

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What are the components of magma and lava?

melt, solids, and volatiles (gaseous components)

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Solidus

melting point of rock at given pressure.

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Where does most volcanism occur on Earth?

On the ocean floor along mid-ocean ridges

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What are the unique properties of water?

Polarity, adhesion, and cohesion.

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Mechanical weathering

physically breaks apart rock through pressure, temperature, freeze/thaw, plant/animal activity, and/or salt evaporation.

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Chemical weathering

water, oxygen, and other reactants chemically degrade the mineral components of bedrock and turn them into water soluble ions through hydrosis, dissolution, oxidation, and/or erosion.

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What is a soils characteristics determined by?

  1. Mineralogy of parent material 2.topography 3.weathering 4.climate 5.organisms in the soil.

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What are the main categories of sedimentary rocks?

Clastic (detrial) and Chemical

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How does Lithification turn sediment into rock?

Decomposition, compaction, and cementation

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Chemical sedimentary rocks

formed by processes that do not directly involve mechanical weathering and erosion

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Inorganic sedimentary rocks

made of minerals precipitated from ions dissolved in solution, created without aid of living organisms

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Biochemical sedimentary rocks

formed from aquatic shells and bodies, usually from organic material lithified underwater.

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Classification of sedimentary rocks

1: Determine makeup 2: Grain size 3: Rock description 4: Rock name

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Sedimentary Structures

Visible textures/arrangements of sediments within a rock. Ex: bedding planes, graded bedding, plane beds, ripples, dunes, anti dunes, bioturbation, mud cracks.

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Marine Depositional Environment

completely submerged in seawater.

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Continental Slope Depositional Environment

not common in rock record: lower and upper slope on beach

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Littoral zone Depositional Environment

The beach: tidal flats, reefs, lagoons, deltas

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Terrestrial Depositional Environment

Diverse: Fluvial, Alluvial, Glacial

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Facies

classify sedimentary rocks by physical, chemical, and biological properties.

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The four earth systems

Geosphere, Hydrosphere, Biosphere, and Atmosphere

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The types of boundaries between plates

divergent: oceanic spreading center, cont. drift zones. convergent: oceanic-continent, continent-continent, oceanic-oceanic. transform: continental transform fault, mid ocean ridge transform fault.

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Intrusive rock

Plutonic, forms within earth's interior and cools within the earth, forming large crystal sizes

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Extrusive rock

Volcanic, forms outside of earths interior, creating small crystal sizes

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Textures of Igneous rock

pegmatic, phaneritic, aphantic, glassy, porphyritic, vesicular, and pyroclastic (slow to fast cooling)

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