AP Psychology Unit 1 Scientific Foundations of Psychology-Edited

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Empiricism

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Psychology

74 Terms

1

Empiricism

the idea that knowledge comes from experience, and that observation and experimentation enable scientific knowledge.

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2

Structuralism

an early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind.

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3

Introspection

the process of looking inward in an attempt to directly observe one's own psychological processes.

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4

Functionalism

an early school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function—how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.

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5

Behaviorism

the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).

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6

Humanistic Psychology

a historically significant perspective that emphasized human growth potential.

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7

Cognitive Psychology

the study of mental processes, such as occur when we perceive, learn, remember, think, communicate, and solve problems.

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8

Psychology

the science of behavior and mental processes.

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9

Evolutionary Psychology

the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.

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10

Positive Psychology

the scientific study of human flourishing, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive.

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11

Biopsychosocial Approach

an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural viewpoints.

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12

Behavioral Psychology

the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning.

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13

Biological Psychology

the scientific study of the links between biological (genetic, neural, hormonal) and psychological processes. (Some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or bio-psychologists.)

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14

Psychodynamic Psychology

a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders.

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15

Social-Cultural Psychology

the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking.

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16

Personal Psychology

the study of individuals characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and acting

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17

Operational Definition

a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.

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18

Case Study

a descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.

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19

Naturalistic Observation

a descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate or control the situation.

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20

Survey

a descriptive technique for obtaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group

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21

Population

all those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn. (Note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population.)

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22

Random Sample

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.

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23

Correlation

a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factors predicts the other.

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24

Correlation coefficient

a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1.00 to +1.00).

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25

variable

Anything that can vary and is feasible and ethical to measure.

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26

Scatterplot

a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation).

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27

Illusory Correlation

perceiving a relationship where none exists, or perceiving a stronger-than-actual relationship.

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28

Experiment

a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.

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29

Experimental group

In an experiment, the group exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.

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30

Control Group

In an experiment, the group not exposed to the treatment; contracts with the experimental group and serves as comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

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31

Random Assignment

Assigning participants to experimental groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between the different groups.

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32

Double-blind Procedure

An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.

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33

Placebo effect

Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an invert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.

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34

Confounding Variable

A factor other than the factor being studied that might influence a study´s results

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35

Dependent Variable

In an experiment, the outcome that is measured; the variable that may change when the independent variable is manipulated.

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36

Validity

The extent to which a test or experiment measures or predicts what it is supposed to.

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37

Informed Consent

Giving potential participants enough information about a study to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.

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38

deriefing

The postexperiential explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants.

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39

Descriptive statistics

Numerical data used to measure and describe characteristics of groups. Includes measures of central tendency and measures of variation.

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40

Histogram

A bar graph depicting a frequency distribution.

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41

Mode

The most frequency occurring score(s) in a distribution.

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42

Mean

The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.

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43

Median

The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.

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44

Skewed Distribution

A representation of scores that lack symmetry around their average value.

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45

Range

The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.

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46

Standard Deviation

A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.

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47

Normal Curve

a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean (about 68 percent fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer near the extremes.

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48

Inferential Statistics

Numerical data that allow one to generalize- to infer from a sample data the probability of something being true of a population.

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49

Statistical Significance

A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.

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50

Empirical Evidence

Information acquired by observation or experimentation

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51

Psychodynamic Perspective

Emphasizes that behavior is determined by your past experiences that are left in the unconscious mind and childhood experiences are crucial in shaping adult personality

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52

Evolutionary Perspective

Psychologists and researchers take the basic principles of evolution, including natural selection, and apply them to psychological phenomena

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53

Behavioral Perspective

Focus on observable behaviors and learned behaviors., People/Animals are controlled by their environment

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54

Biological Perspective

The influence of genetics and brain chemistry on thinking and behavior

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55

Wording Effects

Possible effects on participants caused by the order of presented words or even the choice of the words themselves

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56

Laboratory Observation

Involves observing behavior in a more contrived and controlled situation, usually the laboratory

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57

Observer Effect

When people know they are being watched, they are less likely to behave naturally

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58

Hawthorne Effect

Individuals may change their behavior due to the attention they are receiving from researchers rather than because of any manipulation of independent variables.

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59

Observer Bias

People who act as observers are closely involved in the research project and may unconsciously skew their observations to fit their research goals or expectations.

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60

Correlation Research

Research used to see if two variables are related and to make predictions based on the relationship.

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61

Experimental Method

The only way to establish that there is a cause-and-effect relationship between two variables is to conduct a scientific experiment

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62

Independent Variable

The factor that the experimenter controls and manipulates.

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63

Confederate

Individuals who seem to be participants but in reality are part of the research team, trick real participants into thinking they are fellow participants

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Representative Sample

A group that closely matches the characteristics of its population as a whole.

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65

Quasi Experiment

Designed a lot like a true experiment except that the participants are not randomly assigned to experimental groups.

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66

Single-Blind Study

A research design in which the participants don’t know which treatment group—experimental or control—they are in.

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67

Reliability

Whether or not an experiment can be repeated

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68

Null Hypothesis

Predicts there will not be significant relationship

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69

Ethics

The correct rules of conduct and moral principles necessary when carrying out research

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70

Frequency Distrobution Table

An orderly arrangement of scores indicating the frequency of each score or group of scores.

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71

Descriptive Research

Describes general of specific behaviors that are observed or measured

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72

Skewed Data

An outlier is disproportionately effecting the mean

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73

Institutional Review Board

reviews proposals for research that involves human participants

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74

Institutional Animal Care and Use Comitee

reviews proposals for research that involves animals

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