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Where does the digestive tube and respiratory tube meet?
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What stops food from traveling down the windpipe?
What macromolecule does the stomach digest and with which enzyme?
proteins and pepsin
What macromolecule does the small intestine digest and with which enzyme?
lipids and lipases
What does the large intestine do?
absorbs water, salts, and vitamins
What small organ is attached to the cecum of the large intestine?
What from the stomach enters the duodenum?
What is the first part of the small intestine called?
What is the middle part of the small intestine called?
What is the last part of the small intestine called?
What substance is created by what organ and stored in which organ to prepare fat for digestion in the small intestine?
bile created by the liver and stored in the gall bladder
What enzyme is made by what organ and digests what macromolecule in the small intestine? What are the products of that digestion?
lipase is contained in pancreatic juices created by the pancreas and digests lipids breaking them down into fatty acids and glycerol
How much percent of absorption happens in the small intestine?
What is food mixed with gastric juices called?
What are rhythmic contractions that let food flow down the esophagus called?
What does saliva contain?
What does salivary amylase do?
begins starch digestion by breaking it down from polysaccharides into disaccharides (maltose)
What is the mixture of food and saliva called?
What other macromolecule does the small intestine digest?
What is extracellular digestion?
digestion that takes place outside of cells (in organs)
What is intracellular digestion?
digestion that happens inside of cells
What are catalysts?
substances that speed up a process (lower the amount of energy required for a reaction to occur)
What is activation energy?
energy required to break down bonds and initiate chemical reactions
What is a substrate?
a molecule that interacts with enzymes
What is denaturization?
to lose form or shape
What is an active site?
the part of an enzyme where the substrate attaches
What happens to an enzyme after it completes a reaction?
it is reused
What 2 factors affect enzyme activity?
temperature and pH levels
What is an inhibitor?
a substance that binds to the enzyme and does not let it do its job
What are the 2 types of inhibitors?
competitive inhibitor and allosteric inhibitor
What does a competitive inhibitor do?
occupies an active site so that the right substrate cannot attach
What does an allosteric inhibitor do?
attaches to an allosteric site which miss shapes the active site not letting the right substrate attach
What is an allosteric activator?
an inhibitor that attaches to an allosteric site and miss shapes the active site letting a different substrate fit into the active site
What are conenzymes?
organic molecules (vitamins) that help enzymes do their job
What are cofactors?
inorganic molecules (ions) that help enzymes do their job
What do teeth tell about an organism?
What do villi do?
increase surface area of food to make nutrients easier to absorb
What enzymes does the pancreas create?
trypsin, lipase, amylase
What does trypsin digest?
What does lipase digest?
smaller fat molecules
What does pancreatic amylase digest?