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artificial selection

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Tags and Description

Biology

52 Terms

1

artificial selection

process in which nature provides the variations and humans select the ones they find useful

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2

natural selection

organisms best adapted to an environment survive and reproduce more than others

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3

four steps to natural selection

overproduction, variation, competition, selection

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4

overproduction

when a species produces more offspring that an environment can support

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5

variation

each individual has different traits

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6

competition

when individuals compete for limited resources; ex: food, water, space, mates

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7

selection

the individual with the best traits will survive

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8

does natural selection act on phenotype or genotype?

phenotype (physical appearance)

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9

evolution

the process by which a species adapt overtime in response to changes in their environment

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10

fossils

preserved remains or traces of ancient organisms

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11

3 types of rocks

sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous

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12

sedimentary rocks

formed by pieces of once-living organisms; where fossils are found

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13

igneous rocks

forms when hot molten rock crystalizes and solidifies

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14

metamorphic rocks

forms by extreme pressure or tempurature

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15

pangea

a supercontinent that incorporated almost all the landmasses on earth

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16

geological time scale

describes/tells earth’s history

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17

law of superposition

closest layer to earth (bottom) is the oldest

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18

embryology

the study of embryos and their development

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19

survival of the fittest

the organisms best adjusted to their environment are most successful in surviving and reproducing

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20

fitness

the ability to survive long enough to reproduce

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21

adaptation

an inherited trait that increases an organism’s chance of surviving

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22

2 types of adaption

camouflage and mimicry

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23

camouflage

when an organism tries to blend in with their surroundings

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24

mimicry

when an organism tries to resemble another organism

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25

why is variation important?

the more variations within a species the more likely it will survive

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26

descent with modification

each living species has descended, with changes, from other species over time

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27

common descent

all living organisms are related to one another

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28

cladogram

a diagram that shows evolutionary relationships among groups

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29

cladistics

form of analysis that looks at features of organisms that are considered “innovations”

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30

james hutton

proposed the idea that forces beneath earth’s surface can push rock layers upward forming mountains; concluded that earth must be older than a few thousand years

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31

deep time (james hutton)

the idea that our planet’s history stretches back over a period of time, so long it’s difficult for the human mind to imagine

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32

charles lyell

presented a way of thinking called uniformitarianism

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33

uniformitarianism

the idea that geological processes we see today must be the same ones that shaped earth millions of years ago

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34

lyell and hutton also relied on there being enough time in earth’s history for the changes to take place

--

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35

lamarck hypothesis

proposed the idea that all organisms have the urge to become more complex and perfect; also believed organisms could change the size (and shape) of their organs by using their bodies in new ways

^NOT TRUE (idk if we need to know or not; in slideshow)

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36

jean-baptiste lamarck

one of the first naturalist to suggest species aren’t fixed; recognized there is a link between an organism’s environment and it’s body structure

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37

thomas malthus

reasoned that if the human population grew unchecked, there wouldn’t be enough space or resources for everyone

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38

darwin realized that malthus’ reasoning applied to other organisms also; ex: more offspring die being reaching maturity

--

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39

charles darwin

naturalist: an expert of natural history

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40

what theory did darwin come up with?

developed the scientific theory of evolution that explains how modern organisms developed over long periods of time

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41

what was darwin’s job on the beagle?

to collect and observe specimens of plants, animals, rocks and fossils wherever they went

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42

what 3 patterns did darwin observe?

  1. species vary globally

  2. species vary locally

  3. species vary overtime

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43

galapagos island

where the most important observations were made; not only did the islands differ in many ways, the plants and animals did also

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44

how long was the voyage?

5 years

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45

evidence of evolution

fossil record, homologous body structures, analogous structures, vestigial structures, embryology, biochemical evidence

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46

fossil record

fossils: a record of the history of life on earth; provide a record of species that lived long ago; helps show similarities with modern species

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47

be prepared to draw a cladogram

--

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48

homologous body structures

similar anatomy in different types of animals because of a common ancestor

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49

analogous structures

same function however not structured the same way

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50

vestigial structures

"leftover traces of evolution that serve no purpose; ex: our appendix (helpful long ago but not anymore)

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51

embryology (evidence of evolution)

embryos of all vertebrates are very similar early on

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biochemical evidence

DNA with more similar sequences suggest species are more closely related

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