AP Biology Unit 1-Chemistry of Life Vocab

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Theory

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58 Terms

1

Theory

Summarizes a group of hypotheses

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Hypothesis

an explanation to a question

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3

Inductive Reasoning

derive generalizations based on a large number of specific observations

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4

Experimental Group

The group that is exposed to the treatment that is being tested

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5

Scientific Law

Statement of fact usually as a mathematical formula

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6

Control Group

groups in the experiment that help eliminate experimental errors and biases of researchers

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7

Deductive Reasoning

specific results are derived from general premises

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8

Independent Variable

the one factor that is changed by the person doing the experiment

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9

Constants

all the factors that stay the same in an experiment.

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10

Alternative Hypothesis

the hypotheses that contain results that are NOT the null hypothesis

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11

Null Hypothesis

a hypothesis which the researcher tries to disprove, reject or nullify

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12

Dependent Variable

the factor which is measured in the experiment

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13

Mean

the average of the data set

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14

Median

the middle number in a range of data points

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15

Central Tendencies

Statistics that describe the center of the data set.

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16

Mode

the value that appears most often in a data set

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17

Variability

the measure of how far a data set diverges from the central tendency

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18

Range

the difference between the largest and smallest values

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19

Standard Deviation

a measure of how spread out the data is from the mean

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20

Standard Error of the Mean

used to determine the precision of and confidence in the mean value

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21

Capillary Action

the upward movement of water due to the forces of cohesion, adhesion, and surface tension

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22

Hydrogen Bonds

the partially positive hydrogen atom in one polar covalent molecule will bind the partially negative oxygen atom in another polar covalent molecule .

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23

Hydrocarbons

organic molecules consisting only of carbon and hydrogen

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24

Macromolecule

Large molecules formed with carbon backbones

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25

Dehydration Reaction

bonds two monomers with the loss of water

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26

Hydrolysis

breaks the bonds in a polymer by adding water

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27

Polymers

chain like macromolecules of similar or identical repeating units that are covalently bonded together

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28

Monomers

the repeating units that make up polymers

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29

Disaccharide

two monosaccharides joined together by covalent bonds

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30

Amino Acid

Molecules that have an amino group and a carboxyl group, monomer of polypeptides

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Polypeptide

Many amino acids that are linked together with peptide bonds

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Cellulose

tough substance that forms plant cell walls

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Monosaccharide

simple sugars, can serve as building blocks for amino acids, or as monomers for di- and polysaccharides

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Polysaccharide

polymer with many sugars joined via dehydration reactions

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35

Glycogen

A polymer of glucose that animals use to store sugars

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36

Hydrophobic

Water repelling/hating

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Hydrophilic

Water attracting/loving

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38

Glycosidic Linkage

a type of covalent bond that joins a sugar molecule to another sugar

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39

Starch

A polymer of glucose that plants use to store sugars

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40

Primary Structure

the linear chain of amino acids in a protein

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41

Secondary Structure

Coils and folds due to hydrogen bonding within the polypeptide backbone of a protein (beta sheets and alpha helices)

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42

Tertiary Structure

3D folding due to interactions between the side chains of the AAs

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43

Quaternary Structure

Association of two or more polypeptides

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44

Lipid/Fat

class of molecules that do not include true polymers, usually small and are hydrophobic

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45

Fatty Acid

long carbon chains (carboxyl group at one end)

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46

Phospholipid

Major component of cell membranes made of two fatty acids attached to a glycerol and a phosphate

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Denature

the loss or change of a proteins shape that leads to loss or change of function

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48

Protein

molecule consisting of polypeptides (polymers of amino acids) folded into a 3D shape

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49

Steroid

Lipids that have four fused rings

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50

DNA

Consists of two polynucleotides, forms a double helix. Holds genetic information

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51

RNA

Single stranded polynucleotide, variable in shape. Used in transferring genetic information to proteins.

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52

Nucleotide

Monomer of nucleic acids. Contain 3 parts: Nitrogenous base, Five carbon sugar (pentose), Phosphate group(s)

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Nucleic Acid

polymers made of nucleotide monomers

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54

Pyrimidine

one ring with 6 atoms

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55

Purine

one ring with 6 atoms bonded to one ring with 5 atoms

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Positive Control

Group not exposed to the experimental treatment or independent variable, but it IS exposed to a treatment known to produce the expected effect

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Negative Control

Group not exposed to any treatment or exposed to a treatment that is known to have NO effect

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