Ap Human Geography All vocab review

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Human geography

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Vocab review fo ap humanography :D

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Human geography

a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape human interaction with the built environment, with particular reference to the causes and consequences of the spatial distribution of human activity on the Earth's surface

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Physical geography

the study of physical features of the earth's surface

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Absolute location

The exact position of a place on the earth's surface.

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Relative location

the location of something in relation to something else

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Spatial perspective

they way geographers look at everything

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Map

a 2D model of the earth or a portion of its surface

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Mental map

A map which represents the perceptions and knowledge a person has of an area

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Distribution

the frequency or occurrence of something

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Pattern

a consistent or characteristic arrangement

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Formal region

a region marked by uniformity

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Functional (nodal) region

a group of places linked together by some function's influence on them

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Perceptual (vernacular) region

a region defined by people's beliefs

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Remote sensing

technique of obtaining information about objects through the study of data collected by special instruments that are not in physical contact with the objects being analyzed

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Geographic Information Systems

a computer program that stores geographic data and produces maps to show those data

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Diffusion

the spread of a culture element or some other phenomena

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Expansion diffusion

a form of diffusion in which the cultural component spreads outward to new places while remaining strong in its original hearth

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Relocation diffusion

a form of diffusion that involves the actual movement of the original adopters from their point of origin to a new place

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Acculturation

occurs when the "weaker" of two cultures adopts traits from the more dominant culture

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Assimilation

in cultural convergence, this occurs when the original traits of the weaker culuter are completely erased and replaced by the traits of the more dominant culture

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Transculturation

occurs when two cultures of just about equal power or influence meet and exchange ideas or traits without the domination seen in acculturation and assimilation

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Contagious diffusion

a form of expansion diffusion in which numerous places or people near the point of origin become adopters

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Hierarchical diffusion

occurs when the diffusion innovation or concept spreads from a place or person of power or high susceptibility to another ina leveled pattern

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Independent invention

in which many hearths invent similar innovations without knowing about each other

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Environmental determinism

the idea that human behavior is controlled by the physical environment

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Possibilism

the idea that the natural environment places limits on the set of choices available to people

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Culture

the sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of society

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Cultural diffusion

the spread of culture

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Cultural landscape

tangible result of a human group's interaction with its environment

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Culture hearth

area where innovations in culture began and from which such cultural elements spread

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Culture trait

a single piece of a culture's traditions and practices

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Culture complex

a unique combination of culture traits for a particular culture group

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Culture realm

A cluster of regions in which related culture systems prevail.

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Culture region

A region within which common culture charecteristics prevail

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Culture system

collection of culture complexes that shaper a group's common identity

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Sequent occupance

theory that a place is occupied by different groups of people, each group leaving an imprint on the place from which the next group learns

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Folk culture

isolated group that has had long

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Popular culture

mass culture that diffuses rapidly

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Commodification

the process though which something is given monetary value

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Stimulus diffusion

expansion diffusion in which the innovative idea diffuses from its hearth outward, but the original idea is changed by the new adopters

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adaptive strategies

the unique way in which each culture uses its particular physical environment

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architectural form

the look of housing, effected by the available materials, the environment the house is in, and the popular culture of the time

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authenticity

the truthfulness of origins, attributions, commitments, sincerity, devotion, and intentions; the quality of being authentic

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cultural appropriation

the process by which cultures adopt customs and knowledge from other cultures and use them for their own benefit

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folk culture

cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, traditions, and institutions of usually small, traditional communities

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folk ways

any informal norms, virtues, or values characterized by being followed through imitation and mild social pressure but not strictly enforced or put into law

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folklore

consists of legends, music, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs, and customs that are the traditions of that culture, subculture, or group

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maladapted diffusion

diffusion in which image takes precedence over practicality

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material culture

the art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people

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non material culture

the beliefs, practices, aesthetics, and values , of a group of people

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placelessness

the loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next

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popular culture

cultural traits such as dress, diet, and music that identify and are part of today's changeable, urban

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survey systems

systems that are used to collect data

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traditional architecture

traditional building styles of different cultures, religions, and places

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vernacular

the commonly spoken language or dialect of a particular people or place

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acculturation

the exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuous first

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adaptation

adjusting to a translation based on the cultural environment of the target language

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assimilation

the process through which people lose originally differentiating traits, such as dress, speech, particularities, or mannerisms when they come into contact with another society or culture

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cultural convergence

contact and interaction of one culture and another

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cultural divergence

the separation of cultures through less and less contact and interaction between them; restriction of a culture from outside influences

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cultural integration

the process of combining cultures together into one

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core / periphery / semi

periphery

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cultural identity

the way people categorize their culture, sometimes by the way they dress and what they eat

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cultural realm

the entire region that displays the characteristics of a culture

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cultural regions

a portion of earth's surface occupied by a population sharing recognizable and distinctive cultural characteristics

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global

local continuum

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glocalization

the process by which people in a local place mediate and alter regional, national, and global processes

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innovation adoption

the diffusion of new ideas

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bario / favala

a shantytown in or near a city; slum area

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cultural adaptation

adjusting to a translation based on the cultural environment of the target language

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cultural shatter belt

an area of instability between regions with opposing political and cultural values

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ethnic cleansing

the systematic killing or extermination of an entire people or nation

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ethnic conflict

a struggle that happened because of ethnicities interacting

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ethnic conclave

a gathering of an ethnic group

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ethnic group

people of the same race or nationality who share a distinctive culture

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ethnic homeland

a sizable area inhabited by an ethnic majority that exhibits a strong sense of attachment to the region

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ethnic neighborhood

a neighborhood, typically situated in a larger metropolitan city and constructed by or comprised of a local culture, in which a local culture can practice its customs

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ethnicity

affiliation or identity within a group of people bound by common ancestry and culture

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ethnocentrism

conviction of the evident superiority of one's own ethnic group

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ghetto

a forced or voluntarily segregated residential area housing a racial, ethnic, or religious minority

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plural society

a society that contains various cultural groups

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race

a categorization of humans based on skin color and other physical characteristics

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segregation

a measure of the degree to which members of a minority group are non

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creole

a language that began as a pidgin language but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in a place of the mother tongue

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dialect

local or regional characteristics of a language

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indo

european language

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isogloss

a geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs

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language family

group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin

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language group

set of languages with a relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics

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lingua franca

a language used among speakers of different languages for the purposes of trade and commerce

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linguistic diversity

the amount of variation of languages a place has

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monolingual

only one language spoken

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multilingual

more than one language spoken

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official language

in multilingual countries the language selected to promote internal cohesion; usually the language of the courts and government

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pidgin

when two or more languages are combined in a simplified structure and vocabulary

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proto language

an assumed, reconstructed, or recorded ancestral language

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toponymy

the study of place names of a region, or toponyms

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dowry death

in the context of arranged marriages in India, disputes over the price to be paid by the family of the bride to the father of the groom (the dowry) have, in some cases, lead to the death of the bride

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enfranchisement

to admit to citizenship; the rite of voting

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gender

social differences between men and women, rather than the anatomical, biological differences between the sexes

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gender gap

a measurable difference between the behaviors of men and women

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